Main Menu
All material on this website is the copyright of somebody. You are welcome to link to this site, however, if you wish to reproduce from it please contact the webmaster or secretary for permission. Whilst every care is taken in the construction of this site neither GLASS nor its contributors can be held responsible for errors or omissions. GLASS is not responsible for the content of external websites.

The History of the Countryside PDF Print E-mail


Along the river to Stretford beyond Tothele; from there straight along the public road which was called by the ancients 'stret' and is now 'fos'; to the other Stretford under Bubbethorne, to the water which is called Ingelbourne

The Foss Way in the Latin bounds of Brokenborough (Wiltshire), 956408

By far the greater part of modern roads go back at least to the Saxon age, and many thousands of miles of them, the ridgeways, have had a continuous existence going back into times long before history began.

G.B. Grundy, 193318

Roads, bridleways, and footpaths tell the traveller how to get to his destination by a route which avoids some natural obstacles; they provide a surface for wheels or feet, and bridges, fords, etc. to overcome other natural obstacles; and they have boundaries within which to confine the traveller and his animals and thus to prevent conflict between travellers and residents.

In modern Britain these three functions are usually combined, but this need not be so. In the less mountainous parts of modern Greece the climate does not require ordinary roads to have special surfaces, the customs of land tenure do not require them to be fenced, and it is thus very easy to make new roads. The stranger is confronted with a plethora of minor roads not marked on the map; it is embarrassingly difficult to distinguish roads in use from disused or unfinished roads, the public Highway from private tracks, and even between roads and the rest of the landscape. The much more stable road system of Britain is partly the consequence of our climate and multitude of rivers, which require paths and roads to be structures and not mere routes; it also reflects English and Welsh, rather than Scottish or continental, attitudes to rights of way. The idea that ownership of land includes rights to keep the public off it and to be rude to well-behaved trespassers is partly due to the general increase in landowners' rights in the last 200 years; but traces of this idea can be found in documents from earlier periods and in the landscape itself.

A well-developed road system is often supposed to be comparatively modern, a product of what we like to think of as an industrial society. Previously, we are told, there had been a 'pre-industrial society' of self-sufficient peasants; they usually stayed at home, and when they did go in for long-distance transport they used waterways. I have seen a learned article on medieval roads based on the fourteenth-century Gough Map, our earliest road-map, as if the main roads which it shows were the total road-system in existence. This thesis is based partly on general notions of progress and partly on complaints of the state of the roads: if roads were as bad in the sixteenth century as people then said theywere, they must have been worse in the fourteenth century and non-existent in the twelfth.

Archaeological and documentary evidence of roads and transport tell a very different story. Complaints are poor evidence: as our own times show, the public is never content with roads, however good, as long as there is a prospect of getting someone else's money spent on bettering them. Transport has had its ups and downs, but its primitive age passed away long before the earliest records. The pre-industrial society, if it ever existed, must be set far back into prehistory. Even in the Mesolithic period, tools of chert were transported well over 100 miles from the source of this rock in the Isle of Portland (Taylor 1979, p.7). From the Neolithic onwards Britain has had a fully-developed network of major and minor communications. The known Roman roads are but a small part of a system that penetrated to every part of England; they are no more representative of all roads in the Roman period than motorways are representative of all twentieth-century roads. By late Anglo-Saxon times it was possible to transport almost anything by land that could be transported before the eighteenth century; the problem of organizing the upkeep of main highways used for long-distance as well as local transport had partly been solved. Inland waterways were rudimentary at this time and for many centuries after.
Highways include not only main and minor roads joining settlements, but also lanes and ways leading to fields and woods. Their history is not merely of pedlars and pack-horses - important though the latter have been at certain times and in certain places.409 The design of roads, bridges, and town streets stems from the invention of the iron-tyred wheel in the Iron Age. No pack-horse can move heavy timber or large building stones. At least since the Anglo-Saxon period, carts have been part of ordinary farm equipment. Where narrow 'pack-horse' bridges survive, these are usually meant to carry pedestrians and animals dryshod while carts go through the adjoining ford. Anyone who has been to Genoa, the lesser Greek islands or the Near East will know the difference between our landscapes and townscapes, shaped by two thousand years of wheels, and those designed for mules and camels.

I shall use the word 'Highway' to include roads, bridleways, and footpaths. The verges as well as the metalling form part of the Highway and are included in its width, unless otherwise stated. 'Lane' will mean a road (less often a path) confined between hedges, fences, or ditches; 'track' will mean a road not so delimited.

Prehistoric tracks and lanes The actual fabric of prehistoric highways is beautifully preserved in the wooden 'trackways', of Neolithic to Iron Age date, across the peat of the Somerset Levels (Chapter 17). These were a specialized and sometimes very elaborate kind of Highway The technology died out before the historic period, and they have left no mark on the visible landscape.

The banks or cropmarks of disused 'Celtic' or other prehistoric field systems often reveal lanes as well as fields (Fig. 12.1 View). Most settlements and farmsteads were reached by at least one lane. Many of them had other lanes ending among fields; but, in prehistory as later, not every field adjoined a lane, and many could be reached only across other fields.

Where prehistoric field systems are still in use it is likely that the lanes that go with them are prehistoric too. This almost certainly true of many of the lanes of Cornwall. Indeed it is very possible, though difficult to prove, that much of our minor road system, at least in Ancient Countryside, is really prehistoric. Many lanes in Hampshire, Essex, or north-west Dorset are certainly of Anglo-Saxon antiquity, but as yet we have little evidence of how much older they may be. Students of disused field systems should look for instances (C.C. Taylor gives a Dorset example) where a lane between former prehistoric fields on downland is continued below the edge of the downland by an existing lane between fields still in use.

Prehistoric long-distance highways The Neolithic was already an age of industry. Stone tools were factory-made articles originating from particular sources of hard stone. The biggest industry was based on the flint mined at Grime's Graves in Norfolk (Chapter 16). Yet Norfolk is full of stone tools from the Lake District, Cornwall, and Wales. The facts of geology, with which there is no arguing, prove not only that Neolithic people had regular long-distance transport but that they had already developed the light-hearted 'coals to Newcastle' attitude to it with which we are familiar today. Transport increased with the invention of metals; and for every enterprise sending out stone or bronze articles which have survived there were probably ten others sending out perishable goods.

Long-distance roads such as the Icknield Way, the various Ridgeways, and the Pilgrims' Way in Stirrey are usually regarded as prehistoric main highways. This is based partly on tradition, but there is an argument which runs as follows. Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Age people lived on high ground where their settlements, barrows, and field systems are still obvious on what is now downland or moorland. These habitable areas were islands in a sea of uncultivable and impassable wildwood on heavy lowland soils. Main routes followed the populated ridges and crossed the inhospitable lowlands, if at all, by the shortest possible way.

This argument was convincing up to thirty years ago but has been weakened by new discovery. We now know that settlements were not specially concentrated on the high ground; the evidence is better preserved there because of less ploughing in more recent times. On low ground the evidence is at least as abundant but is more difficult to find. The 'Jurassic Way' from Stamford to Banbury was claimed in 1940 as prehistoric on the grounds that most of the sites then known lay close to it; vastly more sites have been found since then, and the Jurassic Way is now seen to avoid the more populous parts of Northamptonshire (Taylor 1979). Moreover, the argument that highways with settlements along their length were necessarily important is unsound. Roman, Anglo-Saxon, and medieval minor settlements often avoided contemporary main roads (Fig. 12.2 View), for very good reason. A trunk road is a Highway for armies. At least two armies out of three will be either hostile or unfed; main roads are dangerous neighbours.

The traditional 'prehistoric tracks' are probably genuine, at least in their general direction. Indeed their exact courses, if not their boundaries, are sometimes proved by Anglo-Saxon records and parish boundaries to be well over a thousand years old. Many are ridgeways, minimizing the need for river crossings although, knowing little of what prehistoric people could accomplish in making bridges and fords, we cannot say how advantageous this was. Sometimes, as with the Icknield Way in Cambridgeshire, they avoid heavy soils on which paving would be needed. Often they provide alternative routes. The traveller along the Chilterns, for instance, could choose between the 'Upper Icknield Way', following the chalk escarpment above the spring-line, and the 'Lower Icknield Way' over the claylands at the foot of the scarp. The upper would have been an all-weather road but had steep hills and many diversions round valleys; the lower saved time and effort but its many fords and sloughs would have made it a summer and autumn route (see also Figs. 2.3, 12.3 View)

It can no longer be asserted that the recognized prehistoric tracks are the whole, or even the most important, of those that existed. There were presumably others, at least as important, on low ground, which can now rarely be distinguished from other roads. And the distinction between prehistoric and Roman roads turns out to be less definite than we should expect.

Roman Roads

The most obvious legacy of the Romans to modern England is the roads whose uncompromising red lines stare out of almost every page of the motoring atlas. According to tradition, these roads were laid out hy military engineers to link towns and fortresses across the intervening miles of trackless and houseless wildwood. On this principle the system is simple and we understand it already; it is fun to discover unknown Roman roads or to fill in gaps in partially preserved ones, but there is nothing fundamentally new to be found out.

The first flaw in this interpretation is that the majority of Romano-British villages, villas, etc. are not on known Roman roads. A roadless settlement was no more reasonable then than it is now. The roads that we recognize as Roman are merely the trunk roads among a network of lesser roads which, over much of England, can scarcely have been less dense than it is today. The trunk roads were not a pioneering enterprise: they were added to an existing Iron Age network, and they involved expropriating the lands of people who happened to be in the way. The system was maintained, and presumably adapted, during four centuries of great changes in population and commerce. The problems dealt with by the Roman Highway authorities were not, perhaps, so very different from those of their twentieth-century successors.

How Roman roads were organized The Latin language is rich in words for different kinds of road. In other provinces of the Empire, the Romans had much the same classification of major and minor roads as we have in Britain today. At about the time the Romans were conquering Britain, Siculus Flaccus wrote in his textbook of surveying:

There are state roads (uiae publicae), which are maintained at state expense and bear the names of their originators. These are in the charge of superintendents and are repaired by contractors. For the upkeep of some of them a fixed sum is charged to the [local] landowners from time to time.

There are also local roads (oicina/es) which branch off the state roads into the country and often run through to other state roads. These are maintained in a different way, by the counties ~agi), that is by the head-men of the counties, who normally charge the work of keeping them up to the landowners. Sometimes, we understand, they assign to each Landowner certain sections across his own land, which are kept up at his expense. At the ends of the sections they put up notices to show which landlord has to keep up which section over whose land.

There is a [private] right of way to all [pieces of] land. Sometimes, if there is no local road, the way goes over someone else's land . . . this does not provide a right of way for the general public, but [only] for those who have to get to their [own] fields on these roads. There are also shared roads which branch off local roads; these sometimes form a right of way between the two landowners at their further ends, who share the cost equally at their joint expense.410

Other Roman authors confirm that there was a great variety of Highway authorities responsible for the upkeep of particular roads and classes of roads. Major repairs or making a new main road were the work of emperors, consuls, or benefactors, whose deeds are inscribed on milestones. On the whole this was a civilian matter, but the army took some part in making new roads, especially in
the more distant provinces.411

Britain became one such a distant province in AD 43, and its first twenty years were bloody and precarious. Boadicea's revolt in 61 horrified even the Roman world; two of her three massacres would have been averted had the legions got there in time. We should therefore expect to find more evidence of the army and of military roads than in most other provinces of the Empire.

The Roman era in Britain was as long and as eventful as the interval between the Reformation and the motor-car. After the first century the military front moved away north and west, leaving Lowland England as an ordinary civilian region. It had inherited an Iron Age road system and a Roman military road system, neither of them intended for the purposes of the second century. Alterations to road systems during the Roman period should be looked for. The fate of 'General Wade's' roads in Scotland (p.272) is a parallel for what happens to military roads when civilians do not use them. Many substantially-built Roman roads have disappeared so completely that they can only be found by excavation; did they already fall into disuse in Roman times?

Structure and boundaries A Roman road typically had two side-ditches, between which was a raised embankment (Latin agger) bearing a surface metalled with gravel, stone, or ironworks slag.411 The ditches might be 80 feet apart, the agger 40 feet wide and 3 feet high, and the metalling 20 feet wide. Not all main roads had ditches and agger; and the dimensions varied widely, even between different parts of the same road, for reasons which are little known.

Roads had bridges and paved fords. In difficult terrain there were causeways and cuttings; elsewhere in the Empire there were massive timber substructures on soft ground and tunnels through mountains.

Kinds of Roman main road What we notice about Roman roads is their straightness on the map. They do not have quite the same mindless geometry as in the American Mid-West, where a nineteenth-century road will go through a swamp, or bridge a bend in a river twice, rather than mar its straight course by going round. But the Roman surveyors evidently did not look around for the easiest or quickest or most easily defended way between two points. The route chosen was instead the most direct way, and was influenced only by the more formidable natural obstacles. Gradients, fens, wet hilltops, perils of ambush, and any protests of people whose land lay in the way were usually ignored.

The Romans were masters of surveying (Taylor 1979). Whoever set out the Foss Way evidently knew in which direction Lincoln lay from Exeter, to within a fraction of a degree, and also knew that the Somerset Levels and multiple river-crossings in Nottinghamshire were insuperable obstacles to going there direct. Between the two deviations round these obstacles, the middle 150 miles of the Foss Way never depart by more than 6½ miles from the direct line. The departures are not accidental; they are due to the method of setting out the road on the ground in detail after its general alignment had been determined. This was evidently done by sighting from hilltop to hilltop; the road therefore changes direction slightly every few miles, nearly always on high ground (Fig.12.2 View).
The surveyor of Peddar's Way, starting at the north-west corner of Norfolk, knew to within ½ degree which way to go to reach a certain ford of the Little Ouse, 42 miles away. The road twice deviates very slightly, each time on a hilltop, but returns to the original line on reaching the ford (Fig. 12.3 View).

Roman roads vary in the character of their minor realignments. On Peddar's Way there is one absolutely straight stretch of 19 miles between hilltops; further south, what is probably the same road went for 22 miles ruler-straight into Essex. In contrast, Stane Street, the road west from Coichester, looks amateurish with its very frequent changes of direction, rarely more than two miles straight at a stretch and often much less. These are extreme examples of two kinds of Roman road. Peddar's Way and the Foss Way have rare, sometimes rather abrupt, realignments; Stane Street, and the road from London to Colchester and on towards Norwich, have frequent slight changes of direction.

The reason for the two types of Roman main road has not yet been found (if indeed it has been sought) but I shall risk some guesses. The Foss Way was probably made in the heat of war, to join the military bases of Exeter and Lincoln and to support the front line which lay for a time not far to the west. It was surveyed in a hurry through potentially hostile territory; its planners, having all the manpower of the Roman army to do the hard work, had no need to search for ways round minor obstacles; they could reduce the aligning of the road to a mere problem in navigation. Peddar's Way also appears to be a military road. It has led nowhere in historic times - much ink has flowed in vain attempts to invent a destination for it - but it makes sense as one of a grid of roads built to hold down the territory of the Iceni, Boadicea's tribe. Similar roads were made in all directions from London, even into friendly Sussex, to ensure that there should never be another Boadicea.

Roads of the Stane Street type generally have an evident civilian function. Stane Street itself linked Colchester with lesser towns at Braintree and Braughing. Another road of the same kind went north to the capital of the Iceni at Caistor-by-Norwich and a third went south-west to the London area. Such roads are met by the straighter type of road in such a way as often to suggest that the straighter roads are later. Sometimes they conform to field patterns and sometimes not: Stane Street itself cuts across the earlier hedgerow pattern around Braintree as does the Roman road in Fig.8.4, but in The Saints, Suffolk (Fig. 8.2 ) a field system which we have conjectured to be of the Bronze Age has a 'Roman road' conforming to it.

The matter is illuminated by P.C. Dewhurst's study of what is now the green lane called by Cambridge people The Roman Road, alias Wool Street.412 It begins 4 miles south-east of Cambridge and runs for some 11 miles in the dir(cflon of Colchester (Fig. 12.4 View). In 1959 a pipe-trench was dug along the whole 11 miles and revealed its construction. The part nearest Cambridge looks like a Roman road of the Peddar's Way type and follows the canons of Roman road-building: it had two boundary ditches 42 feet apart, the chalk from which was used to form a raised agger which was metalled with gravel. Where this road crossed the pre-existing Icknield Way the agger was lessened in height to form a level crossing. Wool Street next intersects another Roman road of the Peddar's Way type, leading from the military town at Great Chesterford, in such a way as to establish that Wool Street came first. After this crossing, Wool Street changes its character. Its agger peters out and its straight course disappears. It is still recognizable as a 'Roman road', but becomes a wandering one of the Stane Street type, and in section it is no longer raised but a holloway. The difference is clear even on the 1-inch map but until the excavation nobody noticed it.

Wool Street evidently began as a prehistoric road from Coichester to the small Iron Age town of Cambridge. The rest of it has disappeared but for a length, also a holloway, in and near Chalkney Wood, Essex (p.276).413 Early in the Roman period it was modernized, straightened and given an agger. (A certain cart, jolting over the roadworks, spilt a load of Nottinghamshire coal, which is still there buried under the Roman gravel.) The work began at the Cambridge end and was abandoned 9 miles out, leaving the rest of Wool Street in the Iron Age state in which it still remains. The Great Chesterford road was added later in the Roman era.

Even among main roads, the distinction between Roman and prehistoric is thus not very clear. The original planning of Wool Street has to be set back at least to the Iron Age. The same is almost certainly true of Stane Street and may be of the less straight 'Roman roads' in general. In the century before the Roman conquest, Britons could have learnt about Roman road surveying and have tried their hands at copying it. The very straight Roman roads appear, on the whole, to be the work of the Roman army, although Wool Street proves that some even of these are adaptations of earlier roads. Further research may discover among Roman main roads all the changes and complexities that we should expect of a 400-year-old network.

Minor roads Roads with aggers and other obvious Roman features were the class-A and class-B roads of the Romano-British period. The innumerable minor roads were much more diverse than the main roads. The Roman or late Iron Age grids of fields in south Essex (Plate XIII) were served by grids of lanes; in recent decades these lanes have come up in the world, and juggernaut lorries ceaselessly negotiate their right-angle bends on the way to Tilbury Docks. In the unplanned Roman landscape of the Fens the roads - now revealed only as cropmarks - show the same kind of irregularity as prehistoric minor road systems (p.383). Presumably some pre-existing main roads, such as the Icknield Way in Norfolk (Fig. 12.3 View), which were duplicated by Roman roads, survived unmodernized as minor roads. We can rarely be sure of distinguishing minor Roman from prehistoric roads; who can say how many existing country lanes date from either period?

Anglo-Saxon Highways

It is sometimes supposed that the Roman road system went out of use and was later partly restored. This is unrealistic. Roads are highly artificial and survive only through continuous use. A gravel road neglected for five years gets overgrown with bushes; after ten years it becomes a thicket more impenetrable than if it had never been a road. Blackthorn has a nasty habit of growing on disused highways and powerfully induces passers-by to go round some other way.

The survival of so many Roman roads is a strong argument for continuity of communication and settlement from the Roman to the Anglo-Saxon period. Roman roads that survive in bits and pieces are more eloquent than those that are still through routes. The men of London and Colchester might have kept open a way between those towns, even if all the intervening country had become a wilderness. But what of the road between Braughing and Great Chesterford? Both places ceased to be towns; the Roman road between them was not kept up as a through route, and Rockell's Wood has for centuries blocked its course (Fig. 12.5 View). But there were still people in these Essex-Hertfordshire backwoods for whom bits of it were of use as local roads. Every few years, through the darkest of the Dark Ages, there has been somebody from Duddenhoe End and Brent Pelham to take a billhook to the blackthorn on two short stretches of Roman road, which stand out by their straightness amid the maze of lanes.

By the later Anglo-Saxon period big heavy things like millstones, timber, salt, iron, and bells and fragile things like pots were being transported to and from the remotest parts of England. Building stone was not necessarily local: stone from Barnack (Peterborough) and Box (near Bath) is found in many places up to 80 miles from the quarry.414 People thought little of going overland to Italy.

The supreme test of Anglo-Saxon communications came in the last weeks of the period. On 20 September 1066 King Harold was told in London that Hardrada had invaded the north. The king covered the 200 miles to York probably in 41/2 days. He gathered an army and smote the Danes at Stamford Bridge (note the place-name). Duke William landed at Pevensey, 250 miles from York, on 28 September. Within three days Harold had heard of this second invasion. It took him just four days to get back to London, this time taking his army, which, as we all know, was nearly sufficient to win the Battle of Hastings on 13 October. Few campaigns until the age of helicopters have packed more action into three weeks; it is a tribute not only to Harold's generalship and the endurance of his men but to the effort that his predecessors had put into organizing roads for just such a contingency.

Highways in the Anglo-Saxon charters One in six of the features in English charter boundaries has to do with communications. A total of 1654 roads, ways, and paths are mentioned, 11.6 per cent of all English boundary features; they outnumber every other class of artificial object. Fords and bridges make a further 4.6 per cent of features. In Welsh boundaries, roads etc. form only 4.4 per cent of features and fords a further 2.8 per cent.

Highways are distributed almost evenly throughout England, except in the Fens (Fig. 12.6 View). Charters from Ancient Countryside mention them rather less often (10.4 per cent) than those from future Planned Countryside (12.8 per cent). Highways were probably at least as numerous in the former but less often selected because there were plenty of woods, hedges, and trees which could be used as landmarks instead.

The many Old English words for Highway indicate some thought of classification. The most important highways were called straet, 'street'. These were evidently vehicle roads, often Roman; many of them are still main roads today. Some had names: there are frequent references to Watling Street (already so called throughout its length), the Berkshire Icknield Street, Ermine Street, and 'Buggilde straet' (now called Ryknild Street, a Roman road in Worcestershire). The Foss Way is often mentioned (see quotation at the head of this chapter).

The term herepao occurs 221 times. It literally means 'army path' and is commonly taken to signify a road made for military purposes. When identified on the map, however, herepaos usually turn out to be ordinary roads without apparent military importance; for instance there is one on the Lizard Peninsula (Cornwall). In Latin charters the phrase used is never the expected via militaris but is instead via publica, a phrase reminiscent of Siculus Flaccus and possibly meaning a road maintained at public expense. This suggests that the idea behind herepao (and the occasional herestaet) is that of a Highway wide enough for an army; and that in practice it means a B-class road in contrast to the straet which is an A-class road. Herepa6s rarely have proper names.

There is also a regional difference. In the Midlands, north-east England, and Kent straet is the commoner term and is used for almost all main roads. In Wessex and Devon most main roads were called herepao, the word straet being reserved for a few very important ones.

Nearly half the highways in the charters are called weg, 'way'. This term probably means something less important than a herepao, but it may also have been vague as in later centuries; the same road in Berkshire is called Icenhilda straet and Icenhilda weg. Most wegs are now minor roads, but whether they were all vehicular in Anglo-Saxon times is uncertain; once a 'wheel-way' is specified. Ways are fairly evenly distributed, except that few are designated in the London Basin, Weald, or Essex.

The terms pao 'path' and stig (Modern German Steig, 'path') are the bottom rank of highways, corresponding presumably to modern bridleways and footpaths (occasionally a 'horsepath' is specified). They are less often mentioned than the others; pao is commonest in the Dorset Chalklands and stig in the Woodless Cotswolds, but little can be made of their distribution.

The word 'road' itself is unknown in Anglo-Saxon literature - it is curiously rare before the seventeenth century - but it does occur, as Old English rod, some fifty times in charters. (The exact frequency is uncertain because of confusion with rod, 'rood', ie. crucifix.) The context implies some kind of Highway but the exact meaning cannot be inferred; there is nothing to support the conjecture of some commentators that a track through a wood, the original of the modern 'ride', is meant. R6d is scattered over most of England.

'Lane' (lane) occurs eighteen times; it is thinly scattered but is absent from areas with a strong open-field tradition. It may well mean, as in the Middle Ages and later, a minor road between hedges, but this cannot be proved.

Many highways are described as greenways, stone-streets, broadways, small-ways, sandy-ways, roughways, etc. The commonest term of usage is sealtstraet, which (with sealtr6d, seahpao, etc.) occurs eighteen times, mainly to the south of the great inland salt-deposits of Worcestershire. Other terms are portstr~t, meaning a road to a market town, and cyricpac) or cyricstig 'church-path' (Fig. 9.5). About one way in fifteen was a 'ridgeway' (hiycgweg), a term found all over England but especially in south Berkshire where there are still many named Ridgeways (eg. Fig. 2.3).

All classes of Highway are quite often described as 'old'. Many ways, paths, etc. were already worn down by centuries of usage: the terms 'holloway' (hola weg), 'hollow path', etc. occur thirty-eight times.

River and stream crossings These are mentioned 666 times in English charters, one-sixth being bridges and the rest fords. Their distribution depends mainly on the character of the rivers - Devon, with its countless small streams, has the highest proportion of fords and very few bridges. Bridges are also rare in chalkland regions with their shallow streams. At the other extreme, in the Fens with their presumably deep and muddy watercourses, half the crossings are bridges. Bridges were also common in North-East England, the Thames valley, Kent, Essex, and the Hampshire Basin.

Place-names give us a different insight into Anglo-Saxon river crossings. About 520 settlements in Domesday Book are named after crossings; of these only some forty mention bridges, the rest being fords or wades. The smaller proportion of bridges is very significant, especially as the crossings generating place-names are likely to be more important than those merely chosen as landmarks. Evidently the place-names date on average from a time when bridges were much less common than in the period of the charters. Towns named after bridges (eg. Boroughbridge, Bridgnorth) have a habit of not being mentioned in Domesday: either they did not exist in 1086 or they were then too recent to have administrative status.

Ford and bridge names have a curious geographical distribution. They are, of course, commonest in Devon, where 8 per cent of places in Domesday Book are named after river-crossings; but why should Huntingdonshire, Oxfordshire, and Berkshire have only slightly fewer? And at the other extreme, why should Lancashire, East Yorkshire, and Sussex each have fewer than 1 place in 100 named after a ford or bridge?

We know nothing of how major fords were arranged. The mind boggles at the thought of main roads crossing the unbridged Thames at Oxford or Wallingford. The frequent place-name Stanford suggests a constructed ford of stone like those which still exist on minor roads, but the evidence has usually been dredged away. Occasional mentions of 'earth-bridge' in the charters remind us that in literary Old English brycg is said to mean 'causeway' as well as 'bridge', but this meaning seems to be rare in topography; a causeway is of no use in crossing a river unless it has a bridge in the middle.

Bridge-repair was neglected in the disorganized centuries after the twilight of Rome. Each of the dozen or more Stratford place-names in England tells of a Roman bridge allowed to rot away. I have, however, found thirteen instances in the charters of stan brycg 'stone bridge', one of them an 'old stone bridge'. Some of these were probably Roman bridges still in use; there are several Roman bridges still in use today in southern Europe, albeit mainly in climates where wet masonry is not attacked by frost as it is here. During the Anglo-Saxon period most of the important bridges were reinstated, and a number of unim-portant crossings were bridged. By 1086 place-names such as Bridgeford had become frequent, although Forde (Hants) did not get its name of Fordingbridge until later.

Bridge-work was probably organized by the state. From at least the eighth century it was one of the 'three common dues' (the others being military service and work on fortifications), obligations imposed by the Crown on all landowners. However generous the king might otherwise be, he almost never remitted these duties. The detailed pre-Conquest specification of Rochester bridge happens to survive.415 Anglo-Saxon engineers had somehow contrived to build a timber-framed bridge of ten spans across the deep and fiercely tidal Medway. The landowners of dozens of named places were made responsible for the upkeep of individual piers and spans. This principle of pontage - spreading the repair cost of a bridge among the townships at some distance on either side of it - was to become a normal method of maintaining bridges in the Middle Ages; as late as C. 1720 my college refused to pay towards Magdalene Bridge, Cambridge, as we should have done on account of owning lands beyond it.

A greater achievement still was the bridging implied by North and South Fambridge in south-east Essex (Fig. 12.7 View). The road and field grids of the Rochford and Dengie peninsulas line up across the Crouch estuary that divides them. A principal Roman road would have crossed between the two Fambridges, both so named (Fanbruge, 'fen-bridge') in Domesday Book. But there has been no bridge since the Middle Ages; the tides of the Crouch sweep 1/4 mile wide between the bridgeheads, though the Ordnance Survey remembers a ferry.

Unless we care to swim our horse, like a gallant lover and his lass in 1598,416 we must try 3 miles upstream at Hullbridge. Here we find that the medieval bridge fell down in the seventeenth century and has not been replaced, though the map, optimistic as ever, claims a ford. The lowest twentieth-century bridge, Battlesbridge, is 5 miles above the Anglo-Saxon bridge.

Medieval Roads

In the Middle Ages the road system of England was rather denser than it is now. The remote dispersed parish of Wimbish (Essex) had at least twenty-five roads known by name417 this not particularly well documented place is typical of Ancient Countryside, in which almost all the modern lanes existed, together with others that have disappeared. Every wood, meadow, house, and barn and most fields and furlongs had vehicle access, and there were also Footpath rights-of-way across fields. Moors and heaths were criss-crossed with tracks linking hamlets and farms (p.279). In open-field areas only the through roads have survived to the present; the countless ways leading to the strips have mostly been swept away by enclosure.
Much less has been written on medieval than on Roman roads, but there can be no doubt of their importance: what of the Canterbury Tales or the ceaseless journeys of King John? Monasteries depended on pilgrims and on the commercial running of distant estates. In the seaward Fens, every particle of the stone, timber, lime, iron and lead used to build the great twelfth and thirteenth-century churches had to be brought from a distance and to be paid for out of the sale of produce at a distance. The East Anglian cloth industry was not located near its raw material or its markets. Any town presupposes arrangements for moving thousands of tons of various materials. Detailed illustration may be sought in M.K. James's study of the wine trade,418 or in L.F. Salzman's chapter on the gongfarmers whose duty was to transport tons of 'dounge' out of urban cesspits into the country.361
The cost of road transport in the period l250-l450, when the value of money was relatively stable, averaged about 1 3d. per ton-mile for goods that were not fragile or perishable (Fig. 12.8 View). This seems expensive to us; for instance the cost of moving ordinary oak timber 50 miles was roughly equal to the original cost of the tree.'54 Water transport, where available, cost about a fifth as much. But there was little economizing in transport, and the documents refuse to support the theory that heavy materials were always of local origin or else were moved by water. When the twelfth-century monks of Abingdon (Berks) wanted timber, they sent twelve-ox wains 120 miles to North Wales,361 passing by on the way the third and fourth largest concentrations of woodland in England at the time.
The medievals were not great builders of new roads. They planned many new towns (eg. Bury St Edmund's) and sometimes made short stretches of new main road in consequence. Parts of the Fens (p.389) seem to have medieval planned rural road systems. New roads presumably also arose from casual shdrt-cuts hardening into highways. But written records of the conscious making of even minor roads are rare:

The Abbot and Convent shall, at their own expense, cause a hedge to be planted lengthwise from the first gate [on 'Magdeleyn lane'] up to the second, so that the place may become a lane (venella) between the two gates . . . taking branches from the trees growing in the said hedge to maintain the hedge.

Colchester Cartulary, 1272419

This establishes what was meant at the time by 'lane' and by its Latin equivalent venella (cf. Modern Scots vennel).

Documentation of roads Roads and paths appear in documents as permanent features of the landscape. Any through road, even between two villages, is dignified as 'the king's way' (regia via); lesser highways are called 'common way', 'lane', 'church-way' (via ecciesiastica), etc. Surveyors used highways to define the location of pieces of land; manorial Courts fined people for misusing or failing to maintain the Highway. A typical survey entry is:

A croft [ie. hedged field] called Woodwardescroft between the Lord's wood called Walramswoode [now Lord's Wood] on the west and the croft called Mellerscroft on the east; one end abuts on the way from Ledenrothyng to Goodleste' [Good Easter] on the north, the other on the Abbess of Berkyng's land.

Leaden Roding (Essex) 1439292

Medieval petty Courts were as much concerned with road offences as their modern successors. The commonest transgression was allowing ditches (or worse) to flood the Highway:

John Unwyne does not clean his ditch towards Sowenewode [Soane Wood, Chapter 7] on the King's way, to the public Nuisance.

Court roll, Co/chester, 1312420

Nicholas Ravensby . has a slowe [slough, a soft place in a lane] and 2 perches of ditch making a Nuisance in Hawkeley lane

Court roll, Great Canfield (Essex) 1507288

William Barbor junior built a latrine on his holding which runs into the King's way to the Nuisance of passers-by.

Court roll, Hatfield Broad-oak (Essex) 1443274

Every court had such cases by the score; at Little Bentley (Essex) in the 1480s the going rate for fines was ld. per perch (5'/2 yards) of offending ditch.421 Barbor did nothing about his latrine and was fined for it at every subsequent court for at least four years.

Almost as common were fines for leaving timber, wood, earth, muckheaps, dead horses, etc. on the Highway or for digging pits in it. The Highway could be obstructed by allowing hedges and trees to overgrow it (p.187).

A general duty to help with the upkeep of local highways and bridges was often an obligation of land tenure. Farmers were also expected to maintain particular bridges and culverts where water from their land ran on to the Highway:

John Dowe ought to make a bridge, called a fotebregge, in the King's way leading from Dunmowe to Ratfeld brodok . on pain of losing 4s.

Great Canfield 1510288

Little positive attention seems to have been given to surfacing roads, but this mattered less than it would now: wheels were designed for soft ground and many roads were wide enough to pick a way round sloughs. A big consignment of timber was once sent in 1309 from Gamlingay to Grantchester (Cambs) 'at Christmas in hard Frost'.422

Ownership of highways; purprestures Minor lanes were occasionally private property:

Lane. Item, pasture in the lane (venella) leading from Rothyng Tye to Albosdonn 1 acre 2¾ roods 0 perches

Leaden Roding survey, 1439292

With this exception, and except also for unfenced footpaths across fields, highways were part of the common-land of the manor. They had definite boundaries (hedges or ditches) and did not belong to the adjacent farmers (cf. p.281). Much business in manorial Courts was concerned with encroachments on common-land, called purprestures.

Purprestures could occur on any common-land, but they most often took the form of narrowing a road, either by a neighbouring farmer pushing out his frontage or by a third party setting up a smallholding within the road itself (Fig.12.9 View). Manorial Courts often condoned purprestures on payment of an annual fme to the lord of the manor:

Robert Cok made a purpresture in the common way, 10 ft long and 1 ft wide . .

Court roll, Redlingfield, Suffolk, 1276423

A purpresture near the Pillory, 54 ft long, 4 ft wide at one end and 1 ft wide at the other end.

Court roll, Earl's Come, Essex, 1428-9424

A purpresture . . . established by Richard Gyva, turner, of Takeleghe
[bounded] by the ditch of the close of the tenant of the said Richard . . . on the north, and the king's way called Stanstret [the Roman road, p.255] on the south; 65 ft long by the said ditch [measured] by a ruler, and in width at both ends and in the middle 3 ft by a ruler. [Gyva paid ld. a year for it.]

Hatfield Broad-oak 1448274

Also at Hatfield, rents were collected in 1328 for 'a certain place of purpresture for a muckheap' and '1 pit of purpresture outside the gate' ;425 in 14467 John Nedeman was fined for appropriating 14 feet by 8 feet of the King's way for 'a
lay-by (diuersorium) to put his cart in'. 274

A more complicated affair came before the royal Courts in 1412. Sir Thomas Hengrave and three others had been granted a licence to divert the road from Mutford to Carlton Colville (north-east Suffolk) where it passed through Mutford Wood; they had stopped up the old road but had not made a new one, and did not own the land on which to do so. The gang were also in trouble for narrowing another road and throwing mud from their ditches on to it, as well as on poaching charges.426 (The diverted road exists to this day around what remains of the wood.)

Main roads Which were the main roads? The Gough Map, made c.1360, shows main roads throughout Great Britain.427 It is also possible to analyze which roads were used on their daily movements by restless kings such as John and Edward 1428

Many medieval main roads are still trunk roads, but there are important differences of detail. The main road into Cornwall did not march across Bodmin Moor and Gossmoor as does the present A30 but went by devious ways round to the north. At the time of the Peasants' Revolt (1381) the main road from London to Norwich crossed the River Lark at Temple Bridge (Icklingham, Suffolk) where there is now but a Breckland cart-track. The present Al the Roman road known from Anglo-Saxon times as Ermine Street - was not the only medieval main road from London through Huntingdonshirc; there was a choice of three parallel routes, of which Ermine Street is the only one still a main road (Taylor 1979). Similar alternative routes existed in many other places; the state of the road surface and bridges doubtless determined which would be used at any one time. This is why many an obscure lane is now called Old London Road.

Bridges When going to Cornwall by road, the discerning traveller leaves England by one of three great bridges within 7 miles of each other. Greyston Bridge, Horsebridge, and Gunnislake New Bridge are all of the fifteenth century and are still perfect; they cross the Tamar in the deep wooded meanders of its gorge. These are remarkable in their survival, but such a proliferation of noble stone bridges was typical of the later Middle Ages. London Bridge, alas, is no more; but we still have the great tidal bridges of Bideford and Barnstaple (Devon) and Wadebridge (Cornwall); the town bridges of Durham (two), Wakefield, Mon-mouth, Abergavenny, and Stratford-on-Avon; the east Midland bridges of St Ives, Bromham, and Great Barford; the two bridges in the bend of the Dart gorge at Holne Chase (Devon); the Auld Brig o'Ayr, the Auld Brig o'Balgownie (Aberdeen) and the bridge of Carrick-on-Suir (Ireland); the list could be extended to more than a page.

Timber-framed bridges in the Rochester manner have disappeared leaving no mark on the landscape - although the last main-road bridge in this tradition, at Selby (Yorkshire), was demolished only in the 1970s, and one still survives on the Wye below Hay. Something is known of the carpentry of the lesser bridges, whose timbers come to light when moats are drained.429

Exeter West Bridge was one of the earliest of the long stone bridges; six-and-a-half of its original round Norman arches are still extant. It was followed in the thirteenth century by the bridge between Huntingdon and Godmanchester. The masons of these towns could not agree on the architectural details, which change halfway across; but they knew their business, for their bridge now withstands the hourly assault of Juggernaut at fifteen times the load that they would have anticipated.

The chronology of bridge-building is best studied in Cornwall. In the 1920s Charles Henderson recorded thirty-two medieval bridges then extant and written evidence of a further thirty-five. He found also fifty place-names involving the Cornish word pons 'bridge'.430 Five out of six of the bridges themselves were in the eastern half of Cornwall, where the big rivers are; but five out of six pons place-names are in the western half of the county (Fig. 12.10 View). (Cornish-language names of settlements are equally common in both halves.)

I interpret this as meaning that pons could be used of even a small bridge or culvert. Bridges began in Cornwall before 930 - the earliest instance of pons -but were still rather few by the twelfth century, when Cornish ceased to be an active language in east Cornwall. Most bridges were built after 1200 and were therefore named in Cornish in west Cornwall, where the language still lived, but in English in the east. Cornwall was a rather poor and backward region, in which bridging probably came later than in England; but for the same reason many ancient bridges survive in the county.
Ordinary bridges were usually maintained by individuals as a manorial custom:

At Churche Ende, Dunmowe, there is a bridge whiche is daungerous, and so evill that neither horse, nor cart may well pass without danger, neither can men convenientlie parse therebi being the Church path without great annoyaunce. The which bridge is to be repaired by the landeholders of the Parsonage.
We find another bridge broke and gone . . . call Stebbeyng Ford Bryge, but who shall make them, we do not know.

Great Dunmow (Essex), Quarter Sessions, 1562431

Henderson drew attention to the variety of ways in which lords, corporations, and local authorities maintained major bridges, sometimes out of philanthropy, sometimes for the income from tolls. The great bridges had a spiritual and not merely a utilitarian significance: they were works of charity and piety, the gift of benefactors or subscribed by the public through indulgences. Many of them had chapels or even resident hermits.


In the wood of the Prior at Brunne there was a certain carpenter named Peter de Burgo, a good and trusty man. He was cutting down the wood and selling it, and had taken two other carpenters to cut up the timber. Re had made himself a shanty in the wood, in which he ate and drank and spent the night with his mates

Two wealthy and well-known merchants from near Stamford and three strangers . . . were travelling together on the way which is called Arningstrete. They came under the wood of the said Prior after sunset . . . and there the strangers made an attack on the merchants, wounded them, and pulled them from their horses and killed them. The cries of the merchants were heard in the church of [Long] Stowe . . . The inquest decided that the said Peter was not guilty of the death of the merchants, because . . . when they were killed he was in church at Brunne.

The news later came to the ears of King E[dward I] of the death of the merchants and of the place where they had been slain. And an edict went out through all the counties of England that all woods through which there was a common right of way should be cut down to a width of sixty feet on either side of the king's road. And the landowners were set a time-limit under heavy penalty. When he beard this, the prior had the trees standing on the woodbank cut down, and the ditch levelled and filled in, and all the bushes rooted up to a depth of 60 feet . . . William Baldewyn [of Longstowe] did the same with his wood on the other side of the king's road, and so passers-by go in greater security than before.

Liber memorandorum ecclesie de Bernewelle, written 1295-6432

Medieval England, like modern Detroit, was dangerous: the traveller could expect to be mugged. Although heathland was the preferred habitat of the top highwaymen from Robin Hood to Dick Turpin, travellers had a strong and persistent fear of woods and wood-pastures. * Main roads avoided the vicinity of woods where possible, but where woodland was unavoidable it was the practice to make trenches, linear clearings each side of the road, to give travellers the appearance of security (Fig. 6.13, Plate III). This was begun before the Conquest in the Chilterns by the piety of Leofstan, Abbot of St Alban's.433 Many trenches were cut in the thirteenth century, and in 1285 they were made compulsory by a statute to which the Barnwell Chronicle, quoted above, was referring:

Commanded . - . that the high roads from merchant towns . be widened, where there are woods, or hedges, or ditches, so that there be no ditch, underwood (suthboys), or bushes, where a man may lurk to do evil near the road, for two hundred feet on one side and for two hundred feet on the other side. Provided that this statute does not apply to oaks, nor to great trees, if they are clear underneath. And if by default of the Lord, who may not want to remove ditch, underwood, or bushes as provided above, robberies are done . . . and murder, the Lord is to be fined at the will of the King. And if the Lord cannot cut down the underwood the country shall help him to do it. And the King wishes that in his demesne lands and woods within Forests or outside, the roads shall be widened as aforesaid.434

As far as I am aware no new trenches were made after 1300.†

The place of the Barnwell Chronicle murder is still instantly recognizable (Fig. 12.11 View). Arningstrete - Ermine Street, now the A14 - runs dark and narrow between Bourn Wood and Longstowe Wood, then as now the only woods on the long stretch from Huntingdon to Royston. The woods have been allowed to grow up to the road again and the scene is once more as it was on that spring evening 700 years ago. Longstowe church stands within earshot. Set back from the road and now within the woods are the thirteenth-century woodbanks (p.98) made to define the edges of the trenches.

Medieval statutes were not obeyed to the letter. The Bourn-Longstowe trenches are in fact 130 feet wide to the middle of the road. Trenches were made haphazardly: along Stane Street, Hatfield Forest has a trench, but I can find no trace of one in Dunmow High Wood. They were not confined to main roads: the village of Leafield, in the middle of the ring-shaped wooded Wychwood Forest, had several trenches leading to it, of which traces remain. As far as I know the statute was ignored in respect of hedges and parks.

Post-medieval Roads

The dissolution of the monasteries in the 1530s destroyed the most powerful corporate bodies with responsibilities and interests in long-distance transport. The medieval principle of road and bridge maintenance as an obligation of land tenure was crumbling; much of the kingdom changed hands, and new owners took up the rights more often than the duties of land ownership. There apparently began a steady increase in traffic. Next came the development of specifically passenger-carrying vehicles, of public transport for persons andgoods, and of the habit of thought that regards time spent in travelling as wasted. From the mid-sixteenth century belated attempts were made to reconstitute arrangements for maintaining roads. Successive statutes empowered parish authorities to conscript labour for the purpose. From the late seventeenth century turnpike trusts were set up to maintain particular roads.

* Mr Paul Moxey tells me that even now some east Londoners are afraid to go into Epping Forest.
†The French have similar trenches which they attribute to a road improvement programme of the seventeenth century

An indicator of the physical decline of roads in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries is the rarity of bridges built in this period and still extant. I have mentioned a few of the great medieval bridges; I am at a loss to provide a comparable list of bridges built between 1540 and 1740, even though these have had 200 fewer years in which to fall down. Elizabethan and Stuart bridges are as rare as Elizabethan and Stuart churches: piety found its expression in other directions.

The cost of road transport went up from about 1 3d. per ton-mile in the Middle Ages to 15d. per ton-mile by 1700 (Fig. 12.8 View). Not all this rise was due to inflation: in real terms the cost of transport rose 2½-fold between 1540 and 1690. This increase is probably greater than for any other common goods or services, and is the more remarkable because carters' wages are unlikely to have kept up with inflation.89 Its causes must await specialist study, but a plausible guess is that the rise in cost reflects worsening roads. The turnpike trusts had much work to catch up with; not until 1800 did haulage again become as cheap as it had been before 1550.

New roads One of the chief duties of Parliament in the eighteenth century was to pass Acts for making, or more often improving, particular roads. Turnpike trusts covered, approximately, what are now the more important A-class roads. They had powers to acquire land for new roads and to levy tolls on traffic. 'Tumpiking' and other planned improvements to main roads usually involved surfacing, the rounding of some bends, and making cuttings and embankments to spare horses and brakes on steep hills. The turnpike into Cornwall continued to use Gunnislake New Bridge but lessened the breakneck medieval descent to the bridge by 4nserting four hairpin bends. Some completely new main roads were built. The Epping & Ongar Turnpike Trust in c.1830 ruined the seclusion of Epping Forest by making the present All along its length (Fig. 6.13). At about the same time Great Yarmouth was made less isolated by building Acle New Road across the marshes.

The Old and Young Pretenders, like Boadicea, generated new roads. Military roads, attributed to General Wade, were built across Scotland and northern England to prevent a repetition of the Jacobite rebellions of 1715 and 1745. Some of them were taken over for civilian use and are still main roads; many others fell into decay. On the whole the bridges have lasted better than the roads themselves (Taylor 1979).

In the Scottish Highlands, road systems were often reorganized to follow valleys. Many of the older roads still survive in their pre-tumpike state as tracks across moorland; they often pass unnecessarily high over the mountains.

Turnpike and military roads are outnumbered by the new roads made by the enclosure movement. An early example is the curiously ramshackle seventeenth-century road system of the inland Fens (Fig. 12.12 View). Each allotment of 2 or 3 square miles was given its own geometrical grid in ignorance of the grids of neighbouring allotments. The main roads, where not inherited from the medieval Fenland, have been improvised, with many sudden bends at different angles, out of this chaotic geometry

At the parliamentary enclosure of open-fields it was usual to abolish the many ways leading to furlongs, and to set up a planned and greatly reduced set of parish roads. Some of these were old roads unaltered or narrowed (p.199) or slightly realigned; others were wholly new. Through roads, roads past anciently-enclosed crofts, and holloways were less often tampered with than other roads. The new roads run in the straight lines fashionable at the time, but, as C.C. Taylor points out, the Enclosure Commissioners of one parish often forgot to join their minor roads to those of the next parish, resulting in kinks or double-bends at parish boundaries.

Among piecemeal changes in roads the most obvious are diversions around eighteenth-century parks (Fig. 6.4).

Disappearing highways The building of new main roads in the twentieth century is more than balanced by the disappearance of lesser highways. Not only footpaths and minor roads slip out of existence without ceremony: the old Cambridge-Oxford main road via Croydon (Cambs) is now ploughed over for long stretches, though still legally a Bridleway.

The turnpike movement, as well as the enclosure movement, destroyed highways: by improving some roads it caused many parallel unimproved roads to fall into disuse. Of the three Great North Roads in Huntingdonshire, two are now reduced to bridleways and in part lost altogether, their traffic being concentrated on the Al.

The process was hastened in the 1930s when minor roads were tarred. No County Council could afford to tar all its minor roads; the proportion is probably least in Wiltshire, Which still has thousands of miles of chalk road. Roads not favoured with tar often became disused. Long detours are often necessary in Ancient Countryside because the Council forgot to maintain some link in the network of lanes. The late Mr W.H. Palmer pointed out to me the road from Cavendish to Fenstead End, Suffolk, shown on the Bartholomew V2-inch map 1905 (on the advice of the Cyclists' Touring Club) as a 'good secondary road' but now ploughed out. Nearby, three of the four roads to the deserted hamlet of Purton Green, Stansfield, have gone the same way; one of them has a ford beside which, now hidden in the bushes, is a County Council concrete footbridge. The lane beside Hayley Wood (Cambridgeshire) was once quite a main road; the village of East Hatley was strung out along it. In 1862 it was still important enough to be given a full-sized railway level-crossing with keeper's cottage. It has now been reduced by the encroaching wood to the width of a single horse, and after passing the wood it dissolves into unmarked rights-of-way across fields.

Ancient Highways As They Are Now

The survival of an ancient road can mean many things. At one extreme, on Wheeldale Moor near Whitby, one can walk on what are said to be the very flagstones of a Roman road. At the other extreme, the motorist on a dual Carriageway or the walker threading featureless miles of ploughland may each be following the exact line of an ancient Highway of which no material evidence is now visible. Where the course and the boundaries of a road both survive, they may be of very different dates.

Ancient highways are most often preserved on plateaux or at right angles to the contours on slopes. On cross-slopes they require more effort to maintain against the continual creep of soil from above, and tend to disappear when such efforts are not made. In the Dolomites military roads of World War I are already difficult to find on cross-slopes, being at high altitudes where soil creep is fast. RQads get displaced at river-crossings: where a Roman bridge fell down, the road has often been diverted to a ford a mile away, and diverted to a third site when a medieval bridge was built.

Most well-known ancient roads are either ridgeways or run across country regardless of topography. Roads following valleys - and in mountain country generally - are less likely to be preserved, and where preserved are difficult to distinguish from later roads also constrained to follow the same valleys.

Alignments Ancient roads should first be looked for on the map - preferably the last edition of the 1-inch Ordnance Survey, which records both parish boundaries and public footpaths. Maps display alignments - straight or curving
- that are not easily visible on the ground. Ordnance Survey identifications of Roman and prehistoric roads are useful and scholarly, though by no means complete. Besides these, almost any rural road with its own proper name will be of at least medieval antiquity.

Alignments are rarely optically straight, and to identify them calls on the human brain's mysterious capacity for recognizing patterns. The Roman layout of south-east Essex is still visible in the pattern of north-south and east-west roads on the 1-inch map, though more complete and obvious on the 2'/2-inch map. More difficult to spot are those long-distance minor roads that run across country in great sweeping curves (Fig. 12.13 View). Their names - Drove Road, Bullock Road, etc. - often recall their use in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries for driving cattle on the hoof from pastures in Ireland, Scotland, and Wales to markets in England. This trade, however, probably came too late to have had much influence on the making of roads, and most drove roads are much older in origin: in Norfolk, for instance, the Weeting Drove is probably prehistoric435 and the Fincham Drove is the Roman trunk road that supplied the port of Caister-by-Yarmouth.

Alignments alone are dangerous evidence. The amateur - and occasionally the Ordnance Survey - forgets that Enclosure-Act as well as Roman roads are straight; a straight stretch of road in a medieval landscape often results from the enclosure of a tye or small common. In a famous book, The Old Straight Track, Alfred Watkins drew attention to the fact that certain ancient sites and other objects lie in approximately straight lines across country. Out of this observation has grown the pseudo-science of 'ley-lines' and their magic properties. Watkins's followers have sometimes allowed enthusiasm to prevail over a sober consideration of whether alignments can have arisen by chance, of the distortions introduced by map-projection, of the chronology of the things aligned, or even of whether anything exists along the course of the alignment.384

Alignments need corroborative evidence. A genuine ancient long-distance road is nearly always a parish boundary at least in places. Where there is an apparent gap the road often continues as a public Footpath, hedge, or earthwork (Plate III). Where the alignment is known or suspected but the road itself is missing, traces of the road structure should be sought in aerial photographs (as soil-marks or crop-marks) and on the ground. Often this is a task for the excavator, but sections of road-metal are sometimes revealed by chance in newly-dug ditches. Ancient woods across an alignment should be searched, as they preserve features elsewhere destroyed by ploughing. When Ongar Great Park (south-west Essex), which for 900 years had interrupted the Roman road from London to Great Dunmow (Fig. 6.2) was grubbed out, the road came to light as a conspicuous band of flints across ploughland.

Near Earl's Come (Essex) an alignment of field and parish boundaries, a lane, and the edge of a wood (Fig. 12.14 View) raises suspicions of an ancient Highway. This can be tested nearby in Chalkney Wood, which is crossed by a massive holloway with traces of boundary-banks. Almost certainly this is part of the long-lost course of the Iron Age Cambridge-Chichester road (p.256). The disappearance of the rest of the road is easily explained. The surviving part is on a plateau. Nearly all the missing course would have lain over cross-slopes on which, on these soils, a disused holloway can survive only in woodland. As soon as the road leaves Chalkney Wood it is destroyed by soil-creep leaving only a faint trace.

Road structures and boundaries The straight course of most Roman roads is more obvious on the map than on the ground. Ancient roads, of whatever origin, usually have a course which on the small scale consists of a series of wobbles (Figs. 12.5 View,12.11, Plate III View). Over the centuries, travellers have had to go round fallen trees, sloughs, holes, muckheaps, purprestures, dead horses, and all the things that people put or allow to remain on the Highway; and they have often continued to go round after the Obstruction has disappeared. The resulting small diversions come to look as if indeed 'the rolling English drunkard made the rolling English road'. Occasionally a road has a strong enough structure, like the great agger of Ermine Street in Lincolnshire, to resist these diversions and to preserve the straight line. Sometimes, on major roads, the alignment has been approximately restored by modern roadworks. With these exceptions, Roman roads rarely have the long views ahead which the 1-inch map, on which widths are exaggerated, indicates that they ought to have. An exactly straight road is more likely to be an Enclosure Act road.

I do not know whether the original boundaries of any Roman road are still functional. Medieval and earlier roads are very variable in width, often within a short distance3 and have boundaries which are even more sinuous than the road itself (Fig. 12.5 View). Where one hedge is straight and the other sinuous this generally indicates that a farmer has seized part of the Highway to his own use. In Ancient Countryside a characteristic feature is the sudden narrowing of the Highway where a cottage in a long narrow garden has been built in it. Some formerly wide main roads - eg. north and south of Braintree, or between Birmingham and Stratford-on-Avon, or south of Sherborne (Dorset) - have such 'squatter' houses and gardens, which may themselves be of some antiquity, going on one after another for miles within the original width of the road. Dating the hedges often helps to establish the sequence of these purprestures.

Post-medieval roads, even if not straight, can usually be recognized by their accurately parallel hedges. In the east Midlands, minor roads, often 60 feet wide, made by the earlier Enclosure Acts, contrast with the usually narrower main roads taken over from the Middle Ages. In Cambridgeshire the enclosure commissioners were less generous.

Holloways An expatriate in a new country, where roads roll out prosaically over the ground surface, misses especially the holloways of the English landscape - the lanes mysteriously sunk in deep ravines which protect them from sun and the blasts of winter, lined with great trees whose roots overhang far above, their cavernous shade the home of delicate plants like hart's-tongue fern, shining cranesbill, and moschatel. Holloways are specially typical of parts of England, and have been for more than a thousand years (p.261).

A very few holloways have A)een made by putting a road into an existing natural ravine - a combination called a 'grundle' in East Anglia. Others, on main roads, are cuttings deliberately excavated to reduce gradients. But most holloways are the result of centuries of erosion on unpaved roads. Traffic loosens the surface and prevents vegetation from holding it, and rain washes away the debris. Usually this requires vehicles, but there are a few foot holloways (eg. the man-wide holloway on the coast path north of Cadgwith, Cornwall).

Holloways are widespread, and to select examples can be little more than to give a list of favourite landscapes. They are abundant in the Lizard Peninsula (Cornwall), south-west Wiltshire (especially the Semley country), and the area south and east of Sudbury (Suffolk). Such landscapes of holloways are typical of Ancient Countryside. Well-developed holloways take at least 300 years to form (I have seen an incipient holloway of some 200 years' wear in Massachusetts) and are therefore less usual in Enclosure Act country, although there are many single holloways inherited from earlier periods that enclosure commissioners failed to destroy.

Development of holloways depends partly on topography - they form most easily on slopes - and partly on geology. The grandest I have seen are in the bess of the Kaiserstuhl in Germany, canyon-like lanes up to 80 feet deep with vertical sides and trees meeting over the top. We do not have bess on this scale, but many readers will know the splendid holloways down to Flatford Mill (East Bergholt, Suffolk), formed in an accumulation of bess washed down from elsewhere in prehistory. Upper Greensand forms the dark and intricate rocksided holloways around Midhurst in the Sussex Weald. Lower Greensand forms many in Wiltshire (eg. around Urchfont) and Dorset.

Holloways usually have the sinuous outlines of other ancient roads, especially on Lower Greensand where the sides may collapse after heavy rain. Where a holloway has been widened to serve as a main road, one side is usually straightened and the other left sinuous; examples may be seen at Hitchin and Truro.

Unfenced highways A Highway, being part of the common-land of the manor, is not usually demarcated from any commons which it may happen to cross. Many roads gradually widen into funnels (in Dorset called 'horns') as they pass into greens, heaths, or wood-pasture (Fig. 6.9). A constant feature of the Lizard Peninsula and other parts of Cornwall is the lane from each farmstead funnelling out between fields on to the moorland.

People crossing unfenced land often find existing tracks too rutted or wet for convenience and make new tracks alongside. Bundles of parallel tracks are typical of ancient routes across heath or moorland and can often be seen, at least from the air, centuries afterwards.

Trenches Although the Ermine Street trenches are now overgrown, many others survived to be recorded on the first edition or even the modern Ordnance Survey. Any parallel-sided gap between a road and a wood (Plate III) should be investigated: there are good examples along the roads through the ancient woods that ring Canterbury and in many places on the Al. Other trenches, now partly overgrown but still detectable through their lack of pollards, line the main roads
- other than Epping New Road - through the wood-pasture of Epping Forest (Fig. 6.12). The presence of a trench proves that both the wood and the road are earlier than 1300; however, its absence does not disprove antiquity. Evidence for trenches has often been destroyed or hidden by recent road-widening, grubbing or replanting of woods, ribbon development, and the fashion for 'planting up odd corners'

Bridges These are a neglected aspect of medieval architecture; even the long bridges are seldom appreciated for the first-rank monuments which they are. Within my lifetime two major medieval bridges in Eastern England - Brandon and St Neot's - have been demolished.

The study of minor ancient bridges is still full of the thrills of discovery. It is not a task for the motorist or even for his passenger; it requires cycling remote lanes and wading under culverts. Medieval bridges tend to have pointed arches, parallel stone ribs under the main arch, and parapets with triangular 'refuges' for pedestrians projecting over the piers, but these features were not always present and the parapets may not survive. Southgate Bridge, Bury St Edmund's, was recently rediscovered buried beneath successive roadwidenings. In Cornwall the arch is sometimes replaced by a massive natural flat boulder used as a 'clapper' lintel (but beware of quarried granite slabs used, even in non-granite areas, in more recent times).

Vegetation The verges of highways are old grassland of a peculiar and often rather unstable kind, traditionally grazed and fertilized by the dung of passing beasts and by washings from the road surface. They are not usually among the richest kinds of grassland, but they are important especially in those regions where old grassland of any kind is now rare. In much of England road and railway verges are now the chief home of such general grassland plants as cowslip, knapweed, rock-rose, and hay-rattle (Rhinanthus minor). Few species are confined to verges, but many are commoner there than in other habitats; these include oat-grass (Arrhenatherum elatius - the characteristic roadside grass which farmers occasionally mistake for wild oats), kex or cow-parsley (Anthriscus syivestris - the well-known spring umbellifer, typical of roadsides rather than of hedges between fields) hedge-garlic (Alliaria petiolata), and black horehound (Ba/iota nigra). Chalkland verges have great knapweed and its broomrape parasite (Centaurea scabiosa and Orobanche elatior). A few national rarities, such as the native grape-hyacinth (Muscari atlanticum), are mainly on roadsides.

Most of these plants are not confined to ancient roads. Some, indeed, depend on recent disturbance, such as the (Socratic) hemlock (Conium maculatum) now profuse along motorways and the rare mullein Verbascum puiverulentum sometimes found on road-widenings in Norfolk. A specially rich kind of verge, related to woodland grassland (p.109), is often to be found where an ancient road approaches an ancient wood.
Tracks and earthen road surfaces themselves support certain plants that withstand being stood on. These include the plantains whose pollen marks the beginning of civilization in the Neolithic. Other plants such as the smaller rushes (7uncus articulatus and J. bufonius) and creeping buttercup grow in ruts and sloughs.

Little-used tracks and paths and the trodden ground around pasture gates have a specialized flora. Most of these plants require seasonal moisture. Species of muddy tracks are probably the most severely threatened class of the British flora apart from cornfield weeds. Most of them appear to stay in one place rather than to colonize new sites; they are lost partly through the tendency for traffic to be concentrated on fewer tracks and partly through the modern love of drainage. One of the famous Lizard Peninsula rarities, the tiny rush Juncus mutabilis, grows in cart-tracks across moorland at places where they cross the edges of bess deposits. This rush, a short-lived annual plant, germinates from buried seed where water seeps into a rut. As D.E. Coombe and L. Frost have shown, this very special habitat depends on a vehicle using a centuries-old track just once or twice a year, and is in danger of being lost through the complete disuse of the tracks. The Lizard has many other cart-rut plants including the curious water-fern Pilularia globuhfera and several aquatic buttercups. Another threatened plant is mousetail, Myosurus minimus, a plant of similar habitats including cattle-trodden gateways on Fenland pastures. The fleabane Pulicaria vulgaris was recorded by John Ray in 1660 'in many watery or moist places of the highways' of Cambridgeshire;436 it has long been extinct in the county and is very severely reduced throughout England. A specialized, and also declining, plant of permanent water trickles in Cornish holloways is the delicate Cornish moneywort, Sibthorpia europaea.

The loss of specialized plants is but one of many threats to the course, structure, and vegetation of historic highways. Ploughing and Obstruction of rights-of-way across fields is a familiar offence which used to be committed with less impunity than it is now:

William atteWater senior ploughed the church-way in a field called Warmelee to the grave Nuisance . . . [fined 1d.]

Court roll, Hatfield Broad-oak 1444274

As we have seen, even roads and lanes with boundary hedges are seized and ploughed out by adjoining landowners, though now perhaps less often than earlier this century.
Purpresture, too, is very much alive. The modern version of the classic practice begins with a householder mowing the verge outside his garden, continues with boulders placed to prevent people from driving on the verge, and ends with the ditch filled in and the verge absorbed into the garden. Some farmers grub out hedges, fill in ditches, and cultivate the Highway up to the edge of the asphalt. This too is an ancient abuse:

The Abbot of Sibton ploughed up a certain Royal way in Thorington [Suffolk] in width 3 feet and in length 20 perches.

Hundred Rolls 1272437

Local authorities are curiously reluctant to prevent public land from thus slipping gratis into private hands. They often evade this duty on the pretext that the soil of highways belongs to the owners of the adjacent lands. This notion apparently arises from confusing those highways that are mere rights-of-way across fields with those that are separate parcels of land in their own right. Most roads, all lanes, and some footpaths are the latter. Highways set out by Enclosure Act or Turnpike Act are expressly vested in the Highway authority; and it is perfectly clear from ancient custom that (with rare exceptions) pre-Enclosure Act highways in England, with their verges, are part of the common land of the manor. In neither case do the highways belong to the adjacent landowners, who have no more right to annex them or their verges than does anyone else.

The grassland of roads is neglected and abused. Verges are dug up from time to time. They may be buried by Highway engineers who can think of nowhere better to get rid of excess subsoil (arising through errors in calculating cut-and-fill). Some county councils in the 1960s (and perhaps even now) sprayed verges with weedkillers in the childlike belief that this would prevent weeds from growing on them; weedkillers, alas, kill cowslips more effectively than they kill weeds. At best, mowing depends on the whims and budgets of Highway authorities. Many verges, once mown too often, are now mown too seldom: they turn into tall tussocky grassland and then into woodland.

It is a pity that so much effort and research should have been put into the new vegetation of motorway verges (which, to judge by the precedent of the railways, hardly need special treatment) and so little into the deteriorating plant cover of existing highways. But the latter is not entirely neglected. The work of the Ramblers' Association in upholding rights-of-way is well known. Less publicized is the activity of the county Naturalists' Trusts in identifying and protecting specially important lanes and verges: for example the work of Mrs J. Mummery for Essex Naturalists' Trust.438 This is done in collaboration with Highway authorities, but usually no special action is asked for. The selected verges are given normal management, but are marked by posts so that any destructive treatment can be avoided.


The History of the Countryside

Oliver Rackham 1986

J M Dent & Sons Ltd
ISBN 0-460-04449-4

Chapter 12

Quick links to book pages:-

248, 249, 250, 251,252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281,

Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top

Last Updated ( Friday, 10 November 2006 )
when does plavix go generic 2012 exelon corporation dividend history effect clomiphene pregnancy benadryl cheap uk is generic micardis effective diovan for purchase generic kytril cephalexin buy online us can you buy clonidine discount prescription lipitor card for discount co pay where to get clomid in uk over the counter oral medication for ringworm pancha tulasi usage how old do i have to be to buy viagra where was broadchurch filmed actos over the counter western drug prevacid fast dramamine deleviery sinequan looking for alli by mail lexapro normale dosering buy finpecia paypal buy keftab perth australia bupropion online coupon code ventolin side effects uk fluoxetine canada drug store american zanaflex pak online newspapers aristocort cream for acne buy suhagra usa xenical online rx orlistat jelly viagra levofloxacin eye drops brand name actosol discount pamelor generic proscar india hyzaar brands india where can i buy tetracycline buy ceftin 100 dilantin uses medication eulexin overnight pharmacy clomid where to purchase purchase erexin v to buy arimidex cialis ed bph zofran capsules ginseng extract shelf life online pharmacy no prescription needed acticin acai berry class action lawsuit cicialis over the counter pills to help erectile dysfunction sinequan nombre generico buy prevacid pills in the australia is sertraline hcl 100mg zoloft buy zestoretic with no rx liquid casodex review overnight buy abana online rx when will there be a generic version of nexium furosemide 100mg tablet buyers of sominex canada order erythromycin pills best place to buy rogaine 2 coconut water is a natural alternative to viagra generic yasmin pill should i do a second round of accutane research grade zanaflex how to take prednisone 10mg dose pack zyloprim comprare fluoxetine 20 mg en espanol buy rosuvastatin in australia genuine levothroid best price comprar cialis generico en chile vardenafil generico argentina zoloft lawsuit pregnancy can you get lithium rechargeable batteries buy quibron-t boots pharmacy generic mobic medication generic tricor cost order singulair 10mg zestoretic tablets side effects can buy indocin online maxalt tablets for purchase luvox daily use reviews buy florinef lowest price are ephedra diet pills legal vigra flyplass buss get a free sample of viagra worldwide pharmacy micronase pletal online cheap eulexin in croatia online pharmacy uk propranolol lowest price generic levitra metronidazole gel dose for bv# fast motrin deleviery buy retino-a cream 0,025 online amazon ebay cialis pills can you buy hydrochlorothiazide prescription microzide western drug pletal will levothroid make me gain weight what is prednisona alonga used for zocor usa sale discount generic flomax how safe is it to buy viagra online safe lipitor no precription buy risperdal tablets online how to by zoloft online how to buy xalatan in london no rx dilantin online cheap amaryllis bulbs buy canada drugs where to buy cheap lipitor where to get a prescription for cialis prozac nation elizabeth wurtzel best online pharmacy with no prescription acai pill shop discount code cost of generic actonel pilex comprar prandin side effects uk apcalis sx tablets price buy toradol online overnight nike air max 1 black leopard for sale brand levitra low price renagel uk diovan reviews patients aricept prescription drug effexor xr withdrawal symptoms last what class of drugs is lasix prednisone dosage for adults with poison ivy buy cleocin gel 40 methotrexate prescriptions how much does a box of benadryl cost viagra soft usa cvs prices buy cialis online us pharmacy pariet cheap australia pharmacy insulin passport aleve max daily dose orlistat us companies only free coupon for promethazine what symptoms does treat allegra d hour buy himcolin greece glimepiride tablets ip 1mg styplon to buy in england mail order seroflo lady era tablets for sale what is aciphex 20 mg 36 hour cialis generic can i make hyaluronic acid lisinopril hctz 20-25 mg tablet cheapest cystone tablets uk buy aldactone uk what color are skelaxin tablets can you buy diakof over the counter inexpensive lisinopril propranolol tablets purchase on line buy pharmacy abana overseas online pharmacy india bangalore how to take topamax and phentermine for weight loss where prograf what is lady era tablets safe site to purchase viagra lisinopril hctz 10 12.5 mg tablets side effects buy brand levitra hong kong best place to buy differin in usa what is meclizine hydrochloride 25 mg used for augmentin without siberian ginseng seeds australia what is protonix drip for irbesartan side effects bladder cheap speman sale uk elavil ordering no prescription can you buy mestinon online can you really buy antibiotics online order arjuna lowest price tofranil pharmacy order maximum dose of zofran in pregnancy overnight pharmacy antabuse menosan tablets dosage drug market order levothroid canadian alliance of physiotherapy provincial indinavir crystals urine buy cheap moduretic using pay pal why is there a shortage of zithromax buspar 10 mg tablet viagra and fertility pregnancy reglan express canada best price for real keflex low cost brand levitra buy xanax online no prescription canada where can i get exelon indian cabgolin donde comprar doxycycline washington low income housing alliance seattle coalition what does ventolin taste like viagra drug in uk pharmacy how much does it cost to buy viagra very cheap tadalis strattera 80 mg price celadrin usa generic emsam overnite shipping order non generic keftab buy torsemide from mexico online discount buy alphagan drugs comprar estrace en argentina cheap diabecon no prescription cane you buy lisinopril canadian pharmacy moduretic comprar generic for norvasc 5mg where to buy duetact mg buy metformin without rx canada online generic actoplus met canada viagra mastercard actoplus met generic buy online alli diet pills side effects reviews how much does flonase cost without insurance where do i brand cialis in mexico how to use zyban to stop smoking zofran order in the us feldene perth australia what is proscar prescribed for order femara 120 mg rx online pharmacy complaints is there a generic drug for vytorin pilex visa dostinex 0.5 mg 2 tablet buying accutane online uk safe comprar allegra original en madrid what is leukeran drugs side effects of cozaar tablets para que se usa la crema zovirax cheap deltasone free delivery sexual side effects of cymbalta in men come si usa kamagra oral jelly anxiety disorder treatment genuine midamor 100mg where can i order dramamine australian herbal incense suppliers bactrim ds capsules pharmacy has best price buspar aygestin dose administration buy methotrexate no prescription blopress nebenwirkungen impotenz buy robaxin tablets generic nymphomax snorting gabapentin capsules buy canada no prescription for toprol xl amitriptyline for dogs reviews what is betapace pills used for low price dramamine uk what is the correct dosage of benadryl for a dog tegretol drug store online best site to buy acai mircette medication overnight delivery zyprexa direct pharmacy what is duphalac syrup used for ginseng farm for sale med cab risperdal cheap trazodone online cipralex 20mg tablets what is the dosage for fluoxetine children;s motrin generic name order lipitor no prescription needed cordarone tablets 40mg zenegra coupons best generic forzest review stieva-a 0.025 for wrinkles are there any long term effects of accutane fertility drug clomiphene clomid serophene milophene pregnancy total sales viagra 2010 indinavir for men sale in uk where can im order furosemida from meixco to the us caverta ranbaxy price vytorin tab 10-40 mg buy effexor canada online prescription 365 pharmacy stockton opening hours lasuna prix en pharmacie en france tadalis soft tabs effexor fda approved to buy without prescription best price advair diskus warfarin alternatives for atrial fibrillation paxil online petition generic azulfidine safe best place to buy zyrtec naprosyn shortage cymbalta western australia better than crestor generic prevacid solutab 30 mg western drug reminyl acai berry pas cher snovitra super power in italia methocarbamol without a prescription order orlistat 120 mg voltaren retard 100 mg tabletten lithium bipolar 2 reviews sarafem online overnight prazosin tablets 1mg canadian online pharmacy for zyrtec allegra discontinued buy estrace perth australia triamterene 5mg tablets keftab prices sustiva doctors online nitrofurantoin tablets uk order cephalexin medication by mail what does seroquel make you feel like retin a 0.05 janssen cilag vente de xeloda au quebec didronel coupon code kamagra gold mg buy what is benzac pills used for rocaltrol uk brand name xenical 120 mg hard capsules orlistat lexapro coming off patent zentel syrup for kids zanaflex cost in canada generic uk paypal betnovate length of treatment for uti with bactrim indiapharmacy online pharmacy pharmacists medications voltaren 50 breastfeeding mexico pharmacy no prescription online can you buy zebeta approved propecia mg uk cant order nolvadex online citalopram dosage recommended my zerit coupons zyprexa online pharmacy vardenafil 10 mg tab himalaya confido reviews desyrel prix en pharmacie en france imperial order alliance discount walmart pharmacy apple glen side effects of amitriptyline withdrawal no rx arimidex online buy mens shoes online australia ordering biaxin on line alphagan women buy buy lantus tablets canada dostinex online from uk reviews on zerit comprar januvia en argentina get shuddha guggulu toronto meridia capital brand isoniazid buy rosuvastatin india cheap mobicam prescription needed omeprazole nhs choices can use fucidin cream pregnancy buy calcium carbonate hong kong insulin-international-pharmacy protonix order on web generic drugs buy actos us online pharmacy no prescription pyridium hyzaar by mail order triamterene in the uk arimidex pharmacy order non prescription voltaren altace express canada matrix blue pill red pill quote etodolac abuse high buy cafergot suppositories australia flovent online usa no prescription avapro hct 150 side effects cost of generic sinemet where to buy carbozyne in canada safely rheumatoid arthritis patient uk zyprexa zydis package insert tenormin birth control online mexico billig isoptin online kaufen how to get paxil online crestor mail order prescription plavix online with out prescription elocom ma?? skutki uboczne avodart prices canada nexium where to purchase buy trental paypal accepted accumetrics verifynow aspirin assay l-tryptophan discount buy allegra paypal terramycin from india how much is femara without insurance acheter pas cher aciclovir where to suprax can i order advair diskus no prescription in the usa geriforte syrup cheap uk zestril tablets 10mg drug hyzaar ds what is actos drugs cheap genuine norvasc online forzest online coupon code best pharmacy to order vytorin over counter prinivil difference entre viagra cialis or levitra purchase lithium ion battery charger kamagra with american express motilium online without prescription retin-a 0,025 costco ordering entocort high blood pressure medication with least side effects is liquid paxil available in canada canadian healthcare system problems vytorin without tretinoin for sale without prescription what is acivir pills made of alli com skateboarding purchase lexapro 20mg minomycin online in us where do i depakote in canada what is the generic for lamisil asda pharmacy ventolin buy accutane in canada why has hyzaar been discontinued cialis levitra we buy any car ni xenical rx prednisolone medication interactions retino-a cream 0,05 over the couter cialis sublingual sale 5mg viagra western drug duphalac culturismo italiano andrea nuccitelli what is betapace af fastest norvasc uk delivery suppliers of sumycin in us valtrex not generic cheap antabuse sale uk where can i buy viagra over the counter in ireland use of viagra for healthy men citalopram 10 mg weight gain average cost of tamoxifen genuine cialis online prescription amaryl sublingual dosage how to take prevacid 30 mg purchase tretinoin 0,025 lowest price cheap leukeran cheap us generic compazine buy drug lopressor side effects indian pharmacy feldene mobic brand positioning viva menorca hotel calan bosch reviews comprar ephedraxin portugal avalide tablets order dutas online uk hyaluronic acid costco kamagra online next day hydromorphone side effects itching periactin for cats overdose atarax tablet ka mg where to buy calcium carbonate in malaysia best place to buy apcalis sx buy brand pulmicort cheapest nolvadex uk synthroid tablet sale do you need rx prometrium over counter motrin what does decadron used to treat propranolol reviews public speaking buy lotrisone online amazon buy go live 1005 europe best otc diet pills for energy viagra plus 5mg tablets mexico pharmacies online that sell arimidex differin without prescription canada tinidazole giardiasis treatment septilin pills sweat colchicine canadian source order asacol online uk fluoxetine sarafem reviews nolvadex pct dosage length types birth control pills india can pharmacy still dispense colchicine online brand advair diskus costco generic brand of prilosec dilantin tablets 40mg what is pravastatin sodium 40 mg used for zyprexa discount drug albendazole (albenza) half price myambutol dostinex online usa no prescription diclofenac tablets 100mg avalide cheap uk evista 60 mg 28 tablet mifepristone and misoprostol cost in south africa mexico diclofenac pharmacy overnight zyvox pfizer fda where am i game erection packs 2 discount pharmacy online how long to take antivert cheapest price prevacid mexican pharmacy online hydrocodone usual dose of relafen can you buy brand viagra in ireland cialis regenon farmacie online doxazosin tablets 150 mg cheap acai berry australia is ranitidine syrup available over the counter what does zyban feel like lanoxin legal us asacol cost canadian buy cytoxan online reviews buy zofran online in usa kamagra pills review arthritis in feet and legs cost of wellbutrin xl without insurance walmart $4 prescriptions no insurance trental 400 mg kosten dipyridamole aspirin australia bentyl medication side effects of sildenafil in pulmonary hypertension proventil coupons 2011 nexium 40 mg in india telmisartan 40mg hydrochlorothiazide 12.5mg depo provera weight gain 2012 generic avapro side effects uroxatral online in usa mail order generic atarax amantadine sulfate 100mg buy betnovate online cheap generic moduretic india strattera to buy in australia oxytrol patch over the counter Purchase prednisone 5mg fastest clomid uk delivery lariam uses medication can buy pyridium over counter bactrim ds 800 side effects drugs combination coversyl plus why has brand viagra been discontinued vente de chloroquine au quebec lexapro coupon code cipro 10 mg maxalt pill shortage how to use atrovent hfa inhaler buy zovirax online at canada pharmacy side effects of long term use of lasix i pill elavil website identifier requip order levaquin on line purchase buy beconase aq greece plendil prices usa use menosan coupon online lexapro from 10mg to 5mg flagyl er from europe pilex cijena u bih cheap cefixime buy online buy levitra online from india non generic seroflo buy rumalaya liniment has anyone purchased cialis online merck medco mail order pharmacy feldene pharmacy order where can i buy diamox amoxil fast india what is the drug deltasone cymbalta order online no prescription accutane sellers synthroid online forum where to buy brand viagra in u.s. metoclopramide dose iv ordering flomax canada buy prednisone online from uk dapoxetine discounts codes erection packs 1 in canada acai berry in italian seroquel para que se usa atrovent dosage information nitroglycerin results forum how to take cytotec for abortion buy sominex astrailia how to get maxalt on line viagra soft drug class dostinex cabergoline pregnancy buy cleocin gel quick buy sinemet overseas speman generico online buy gyne-lotrimin bulk allegra com shoes buy maxalt online usa lexapro canadian medications without prescription plavix discount voucher how often to take albendazole glyset tablets uses amaryl comprar requip tablets on line to buy zithromax where can i buy it urispas australia pharmacy tomar ciprofloxacino alcohol low cost erexor viagra super active order in the us billig phenamax online kaufen does female viagra work for women order levitra online canada cialis buy glycomet cheap buy xenical new zealand online arava drug class taking half tablet cialis buy cialis professional online india prevacid solutab sales order desyrel buy fluoxetine dogs fincar precio mexico bayer 205 most reliable place to buy motilium online methotrexate in italia zyprexa olanzapine 2.5 mg lasix water pills side effects order carbozyne cheap buy trileptal in usa atorlip-5 canada prescription ethionamide online pay paypal cheap cialis 20 mg online zyvox iv bentyl online australia where to buy albendazole in canada safely benicar medicine side effects sinemet order online where to buy calcium carbonate australia where to buy tamoxifen citrate (nolvadex) procardia without rx free viagra trial new zealand alli discounts coupons buy hoodia online usa where cane i buy alligator tail meat is it safe to buy pain meds online content and code old street ebay allis chalmers b parts advair diskus dosage recommended chloramphenicol eye drops available over counter how to buy pfizer viagra online pharmaceutical news overseas pharmacy no prescription tetracycline sirious radio sponsors viagra ibuprofen lysine tablets how much does generic minocycline cost where to buy avodart from canadian pharmacy diamox pill shortage safe buy beconase aq online buy cozaar 200 long term side effects of flonase use how to get lopressor on line prandin to buy from europe mail-order phenergan missed glucophage dose mercury mambo 363 ventolin hfa dosing instructions reviews on isoniazid cheap dostinex pills mambo 36 tadalafil 200 mg reviews purchase finasteride cheap hair alli weight loss pills walmart can you order prescription serevent where does the non prescription cialis come from doxazosin spain cost of carafate without insurance withdrawal symptoms from paxil buy optimmune canada can i get chloramphenicol over the counter when will i have a positive pregnancy test calculator glucophage roche precio argentina buy toradol im how to take tamoxifen after steroids misoprostol and mifepristone buy online in india buy cheap clomid drugstore buy trental with no rx tamsulosin hcl 0.4mg capsules (generic flomax) buy zetia astrailia serophene from usa voltaren 50 mg bivirkninger purchase clomid 100mg uk where can i order flovent cost of claritin viagra generic fast shipping exelon stock price drop how to take clomid mg levitra usa pharmacy where to buy ciplox what does abilify 15 mg look like colospa for men in usa online generic lanoxin xenical orlistat cheap mexican viagra online proventil dosage buy micardis bulk buy ciprodex ear drops online why am i gaining weight with alli buy procardia in ireland leukeran pharmacy voltaren canadian pharmacy levitra professional cost comparison endep by mail order colcrys buy online overseas drug stores celexa no prescription online how long to take clomid after steroids lopressor dose for migraine acheter pas cher digoxin lipitor tablets 80 mg where to buy cheap generic abana liv 52 where can i buy it aceon paypal prescription pain meds without codeine femara comprare what drug category is suprax cheapest ceftin online atorlip-20 prices cvs detrol pharmacy zyloprim shortage acheter alli france anastrozole price uk digoxin tablet sale allegra uses medication levlen generic price stieva a review acticin lawsuit canada buy pyridium 100mg online liv 52 tablets composition buying danazol using paypal lotensin coupons generic hydrea safe generic lady era us cost of dutas without insurance buy levaquin online canada depakote discount voucher cytoxan usa sale best online pharmacy generic brahmi sito sicuro per acquisto viagra craigslist london ontario homes for sale buy mircette online with mastercard is mail order seroquel safe what does compazine best price mobicosa azithromycin buy online no prescription best cialis prices soft tab discount code for femara can you buy voltaren tablets over the counter amantadina efectos secundarios tegretol shop net albuterol inhaler price without insurance active ingredients in differin gel albuterol sulfate inhalation solution .083 can allegra 180 mg get you high can you buy fincar online eldepryl online order cefixime trihydrate tablets amoxil antibiotics pill motilium buy without cialis 20mg tablets liquid adalat review seroquel medication where to buy buy fosamax online no prescription us prednisone legal in england metoclopramide compazine pravachol and alcohol use pharmacy that sells ceftin order innopran xl dosage fast acai delivery reviews of online pharmacies india no prescription buy hytrin online no prescription united states buy clomiphene citrate canada serophene overseas ordering aciphex online prescription estrace over the couter plavix discount program levothroid components plavix in italiano seizure medication depakote side effects order rumalaya liniment cheap is children;s zyrtec over the counter ortho tri cyclen mg order where can i get levaquin what is the drug baclofen for echeck viagra stromectol 50mg tablets evista cheapest prices acyclovir chicken pox adults order erection packs 10 lotrisone from usa plavix 100mg cheap bactrim visas z?les buy tulasi bulk purchase generic flagyl where to get the abortion pill online bystolic buy online ireland tetracycline from sigma aldrich ventolin no prescription fedex ups buy exelon 15mg online olanzapine canada overnight delivery flonase by mail order donde puedo comprar xbox live gold reputable canadian pharmacies online levitra professional delivery uk doxycycline online ordering buy viagra professional tablets australia donepezil alli diet pills website snovitra super power low dose birth control after accutane side effects bupropion buy online uk what does cordarone lincocin canada prescription para que sirve dostinex 0.5 mg generic name pyridium betnovate c price india hydrea medication side effects what are the side effects of aspirin therapy crestor drug canadian pharmacy indian generics online arimidex where to glyset canadian occupational health and safety law cost of entocort generic buy brand cialis for daily use fast sinequan deleviery ordering online wellbutrin xl buy augmentin 100 what does methotrexate do to the immune system tretinoin retin-a uk propranolol side effects best slimming tablets uk reviews purchase liv prednisone dosage chart children kamagra oral jelly australia price lasuna legal in england aldactone with paypal payment canadian pharmacy actos generic tenormin from mexico can you buy valtrex pharmacy permethrin 5 percent (elimite) over the counter zoloft birth defects lawsuits canada antibiotics tetracycline lanoxin nombre generico cheap prometrium 40 mg donde comprar tegretol lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide tablets usp 20 mg/25 mg celebrex class action lawsuit canada cvs generic drug list 2011 cialis 10 mg not working furosemide medicine com order minocycline lowest price metoprolol iv push rate where to buy allegra d 12 hour medicine cytotec is lamictal legal in uk xanax high how to get famvir on line side effects of wellbutrin sr in women pharmacy that sells pilex best place to buy brand cialis in canada acticin generic 2013 drugs lov cost zestril generic desyrel online diclofenaco sodico gel elavil india companies only where to buy ranitidine in canada safely brand levitra spain what does cephalexin monohydrate do percocet addiction stories what is prednisone made of over the counter elavil over the counter nizoral cream cheapest drug xenical buy arimidex 5 purchase calan pills frumil discounted indian generics online naprosyn can you buy prescription benicar hct performance enhancement drugs in sports essays can i make cialis soft mail order neurontin pomegranate juice prostate cancer treatment venlor cost without insurance alphagan for sale philippines where citalopram amex pharmacy usa buy fluoxetine without prescription generic hyzaar side effects generic viagra online forum desyrel pharmacy mail order zyprexa overnight pharmacy hyzaar generic ingredients order generic rocaltrol no prescription lynoral sale diclofenac potassium rxlist mexico online prescription prilosec buy seroflo inhaler best site to buy risperdal where can i buy a real viagra purinethol australia pharmacy compazine generico online rumalaya liniment order in the us can you buy fucidin cream over counter uk where to buy cheap generic furosemide buy proventil low cheap price best place buy vasotec pct fast zanaflex delivery purchase generic lotensin comprar levitra en espaa canadian rx pharmacy online purchase retino-a cream 0,025 online order arimidex pct zenegra for sale australia seroquel line no prescription what is glucophage medication amoxil and alcohol side effects cystone cheap uk looking for cialis indian generics online voveran original ayurslim online canadian health care pros and cons where to buy ephedraxin drugs online where to buy tretinoin 0,05 drugs online viagra super active drug schedule buy carafate pills in the canada designer drugs for sale online black and decker 20v lithium drill reviews cheap asacol generic online no prescription sale lamisil where can i get alli diet pills in canada shatavari delivery uk generic precose buy canada biaxin dose for pneumonia bupropion missed dose side effects is buying generic viagra safe? artane shopping center compare olmesartan medoxomil prices vente de protonix au quebec lanoxin pill shop discount code how to import glucotrol xl side effects of doxycycl hyc 100mg tab generic lipitor in canada where to buy revia with visa remeron in croatia how long to use crestor brand albendazole buy generic noroxin us lipothin costco eulexin price india best generic colchicine sites ventolin 100mcg can you take malegra dxt daily clonidine pill shop discount code kamagra oral jelly from canada clomiphene citrate side effects women viagra australia review generic dramamine walgreens mircette mg canada meclizine delivery where can i buy piracetam abilify maintena buy viagra professional 20 buy tramadol overnight visa what is betnovate skin cream used for pulmicort online pay paypal what is remeron used for proscar finasteride wiki wellbutrin and buspar forum hard sell the evolution of a viagra salesman wikipedia where to buy aleve p m where can you buy viagra online what does differin adapalene gel do revatio no prescription reviews torsemide usage cheap vardenafil online buy viagra professional mg tricor price increase over the counter drugs similar to ventolin augmentin pharmacy price arava canada overnight delivery buy periactin tablets uk prescription drugstore alesse discount card order neurontin 800mg is generic vasotec effective norco bikes 2012 uk buy lantus cheap buy decadron with visa indian generics online prandin cheapest drug colchicine kamagra gold 40 mg dose cialis daily 5 mg online order luvox pill pharm support group product pravachol annual sales viagra professional mxico estrace prescription coupon tips for viagra usage get amitriptyline las vegas erexin-v in the uk indian generics online silagra buy neurontin 100mg online does estrace cream make you gain weight diclofenac with other medicines buy cialis super active online australia no prescription how to buy finast do i need a prescription for kytril zestoretic without script online pharmacy uk saw palmetto onguent fucidin acne what does ginseng extract do where to buy atorlip-5 triamterene not generic minocin 100 what types of relafen are there asthma triggers and causes order abilify 15mg guarantee inderal cost buy rocaltrol without rx actonel with no rx sumycin no rx naprosyn online uk nootropil online coupon code pill rx health nexium products online pharmacy uk chemist premarin cream prices levitra 10 mg orosolubile prezzo farmacia diflucan online purchase cheap propecia generic in us cheap generic shallaki order depo provera shot cheap micardis 20 mg peomethazine without prescription what is the side effects for trazodone comprar alli online propranolol 40 mg 3 times day zyvox 500 mg prescription order alli us without discount brand levitra mg actonel pharmacy what is the correct dosage of kamagra oral jelly buy xenical with no prescription best pain pills for toothache prednisolone 100mg tablet order synthroid internet coupons for cymbalta medication zyban discount voucher use allopurinol coupon online buy silagra discount zantac dose during pregnancy arjuna award is given for what best generic bactroban sites discount coupons for prescription medications diflucan pharmacies cymbalta buy india metoclopramide prescription needed international order of allied mothers in sacrifice diamox over counter us bactroban ointment dosage and administration cheap diltiazem pills pamelor discount voucher how much is national insurance vpxl mexico pharmacy vpxl canada sale brand levitra supplier in uk glucophage 20 mg propranolol purchase maxalt generic price lincocin online usa how much will prometrium cost buy prinivil visa comprar levitra super active portugal is tofranil legal in uk can you order brand amoxil sports direct football boots tamoxifen fast mexico will you buy viagra super active in ireland canadian pharmacy benfotiamine shop net allegra 180 mg tablet price lisinopril 20 mg picture costco pharmacy himcolin price order nitroglycerin cream clorfenamina dosis pediatrica jarabe dilantin dose for seizure how much does valtrex cost at planned parenthood can you buy vermox over the counter in germany brand compazine for sale buy online anacin generic nexium spc are pharmacies online legal is generic styplon available in usa discount code for aldactone order adalat overnight what is isoniazid inh levothroid drugs for sale female viagra next day shipping zenegra sale cialis viagra online does plavix come in generic form licensed pharmacy aldactone zofran online purchase cardizem discount coupon amitriptyline usa sale arimidex tablets 1mg best betoptic prices what are the side effects of taking prilosec how long does it take for the effects of citalopram to wear off buy ventolin australia why hoodia is illegal for sale in the uk long time side effects depakote overnight buy accutane ambien side effects where to buy doxycycline for dogs voltaren overseas clomid over counter dubai cleocin tablets side effects purchase amaryl 2mg female viagra 50mg tablets generic drug for dilantin side effects cafergot tablets buy detrol hong kong how to buy motilium in london outcome following high-dose methotrexate in pregnancy misdiagnosed as ectopic where can i order levitra overnight erection packs 21 apcalis sx usa cvs prices cheap protonix india how can i get off celexa cheap feldene sale uk 1 cheap online aciphex mg health canada vpxl buy amaryl astrailia ranitidine indian brands tegretol retard and alcohol meclizine hcl high keflex canada overnight delivery order chloromycetin eye ointment online pharmacies buy lexapro next day where can i buy trimethoprim treatment can i make minocycline buy phentermine 37.5 mg qua white/blue specks elliptical order lantus cartridges purchase dilantin canada abilify 15 mg tablet picture canadian medshop diltiazem side effects long term use diclofenac 100mg zetpil female viagra comments maxalt pharmacy order cheap calander prescription needed pyridium medicine bactroban dosage recommended kamagra uk next day delivery paypal tadalafil brand names generic pills for colchicine prevacid delivery london very cheap prednisolone lidocaine injection dental deltasone uk canadian buy prednisone women taking finasteride hair loss order non generic antabuse colchicine pil accutane free on nhs remedio crestor generico mentat india buy doxycycline malaria uk best place to buy ventolin what is atarax mg used to treat ranitidine mist canada difference between amlodipine besylate and maleate zocor medicine children nymphomax drug class saw palmetto berries buyers in florida safe lasix buy buy lopid online no prescription us voltaren gel health canada doxycycl hyc cap 100mg information diclofenaco sodico dosis adulto buy clomiphene cheap viagra cheap pills citalopram dosage 10 mg buying oxytrol using paypal buy haldol online overnight exelon no prescription needed common side effects of haldol how to use alphagan eye drops accutane prices us buy vpxl in usa buy neurontin new zealand online generic benzaclin good canadian drug company indian generics online allopurinol micronase lawsuit settlements buy food online with paypal unisom 2 reviews promethazine theoclate structure what is the antibiotic minocycline used for diltiazem initial dose iv kamagra oral jelly kaufen per paypal pfizer sued over generic lipitor buy fluoxetine with no rx femara online usa no prescription brahmi dosage instructions where can i buy zovirax ointment online ditropan order on web order effexor xr drugs canadian pharmacy menosan sold over counter best over the counter pain meds for arthritis where to get bactroban pct medrol generic 2013 drugs bupropion side effects alcohol is mail order noroxin safe non prescription remeron mail order generic ayurslim serophene uk online buy domperidone online australia mexico order periactin revia comprare cheap viagra super active 100mg como se usa benzac ac 5 how long does it take for vermox to work to kill pinworms how long does a dose of levitra last order american ginseng augmentin 1 g comprimate filmate pret where can i purchase dipyridamole what does atrovent do for copd where to buy cheap generic brand levitra cabgolin from canada motrin without prescription canada 180 eur to usd buy generic albendazole online with prescription how long to use fucidin ointment triamterene pills drugstore tenormin uk buy hyaluronic acid injections online order online canada cheapest antabuse prices how long does levaquin take to work for bronchitis amitriptyline dose for chronic pain zyban maximum dose meclizine daily use reviews cheapest viagra jelly in the uk shingles medication valtrex side effects get keftab toronto septilin over counter buy actoplus met boots pharmacy content strategy london buy trazodone 10 cialis tablets 20mg premier league player stats assists splitting zoloft pills canadian pharmacy chloromycetin indinavir prescription coupon brahmi gadi katha full movie online free order baclofen online chloramphenicol tablets on line to buy pharmacy guild house barton order clomid online usa celebrex australia price betnovate order on web viramune order online overnight pharmacy strattera requip over counter cialis super active on line for sale no script prevacid dosage 40 mg cheap genuine liv 52 online enalapril vasotec medication prednisolone 5mg price beat way to order luvox is lamictal a class d drug brand metformin buy tricor mg usa types of viagra in india where to buy testosterone cream where to buy cephalexin online uk mail-order buspar brand name epivir-hbv online diamox indiamike mexican tadacip bupron sr drug oversea best otc diet pills for belly fat propranolol medicine children buy pariet online in usa lipitor 10mg uk vpxl brand positioning fast zofran delivery online doctor consultation pain prescription compazine from usa can i purchase clomid online what does fucidin ceftin discount imitrex discount program do you need rx styplon ashwagandha brands in india motrin 800 mg high buy aygestin capsules lopid tablets side effects vpxl uk pharmacy is generic cleocin available in usa buy generic florinef with bonus buy calan bulk getting olanzapine in australia vpxl without a prescription order phenergan tablets buy orlistat in australia canadian pharmacy board forum cheap trileptal pills buy capoten discount why does zyvox cost so much buy canada no prescription for nitroglycerin cymbalta maximum dosage what is diabecon pills used for cost of abilify amaryl glimepiride 3mg doxycycline shortage 2012 cheap alesse sale uk comprar combivent pela internet legal to buy decadron side effects of accutane rash allegra shopping iguatemi campinas cialis super active in the uk metformin medication best site get astelin buy atrovent no prescription fast delivery indinavir sale best medrol prices ventolin syrup sugar free salbutamol allegra-d 12 hour to buy accutane order online no prescription cheap finpecia forum zyban side effects uk buy benfotiamine online from usa billig colospa online kaufen baclofene winthrop 10 mg clomid dosage and timing existe viagra para mujeres funciona malegra dxt without insurance buy cozaar without rx purchase nexium 20 mg buy elocon online usa where can i get ventolin prevacid for infants side effects can u buy subutex online effexor xr 20 mg can buy seroquel online yasmin generic zarah reviews buy entocort online cheap nizagara usa cvs prices is it safe to order isoptin what organisms does keflex cover levaquin sales diovan sales 2012 bites med cab silagra statistics on drugs coming from mexico purchase brahmi cheap ciprofloxacin side effects children exelon auto sales reviews rumalaya liniment cheap uk medikament saroten nebenwirkungen long time side effects fosamax glyset supplier in uk what is duphalac drugs can you get xalatan order robaxin uk pharmacy genuine brand cialis best price overseas pharmacy no prescription evecare ovulation calculator for clomid users pravastatin sodium 40 mg picture tadalafil ic 351 dosage buy cymbalta online from india cheapest amantadine januvia persciption service zaditor coupon code buy contraception alesse information order ampicillin via paypal purchase actos 30mg what drug category is prazosin atarax over the counter walgreens generic clonidine 0.3 mg tablets viagra for men and women in india bringing prescription medicine into the uk quibron-t pharmacy prices list ordering nizoral usa order requip medication by mail lipitor price reduction australia cialis verkauf best price for propecia online yearly sales of amitriptyline cheap antibiotics without insurance buy sumycin from mexico online celexa 20 mg tablet best drugstore makeup products of 2012 phone in order for yagara mail order cytotec pharmacies canadian buy allegra zyrtec 10mg cheapest lopid tablets uk flovent by mail alli weight pills news arimidex dose trt what acid is produced by the stomach parietal cells how much do benadryl cost max menzies solicitor original viramune online ortho tri cyclen lo available in uk maxalt how to buy mail order generic kamagra lasuna himalaya herbal order trinessa online maxifort zimax side effects order hyaluronic acid canada korean red ginseng shelf life furosemide tablets sale how is cialis different than viagra albuterolnoprescription reviews taking zoloft and cold medicine singulair mist canada can you buy cialis professional in ireland online drug shop tadalafil where to buy levothyroxine tablets eurax cost in canada 1 corinthians 13 good news bible best place to buy astelin how much will benicar cost sominex noprescrition needed canada online pharmacy pariet 10 vidal what does apo-prednisone treat how long to use erythromycin ointment for pink eye iui with or without clomid citalopram hydrobromide 10 mg tablets suhagra mg buy premarin medication guide para que se usa el lasix buy atorlip-20 without a subscription minocycline hydrochloride capsules for acne viagra on line in the usa over the counter prevacid recall overnight paroxetine without missed bupropion dose minomycin weight gain prescriptions buy ceftin cod what is the correct dosage of liv chloroquine online overnight shipping the online drugstore zaditor best place to buy differin in mexico taking clomid ovulation test generic isoniazid directions for taking a z pack inderal without prescription aciclovir tablets doses buy bystolic tablets online alliant international university mexico city mexico kamagra paypal australia discount cozaar mg accutane pill for acne buying hytrin using paypal zerit prices what class of drugs is lithium carbonate to buy zestoretic in uk buy dulcolax without rx can i order levritra off the internet mevacor prices astelin ordering no prescription amoxil drug class propecia sales figures pharmacy technician high blood pressure medication lisinopril dosage generic evista uk viagra over the counter uk boots canadian best place to buy buspar low cost floxin antabuse ukraine minipress without prescription strattera mg india tadapox delivery nizoral cost without insurance amoxicillin 500mg dosage for tooth infection can we trust actoplus met online what is lasix iv used for what claritin is safe during pregnancy fucidin without a prescription from india before and after pictures using viagra difference between estrace generic estradiol prozac orders fast trental deleviery lexapro tablets online zyprexa weight gain avoid what are the side effects of stopping propranolol finast generico online buy yagara online amazon walmart pharmacy diovan buy rumalaya from india cheap anafranil 100 mg allopurinol without prescription canada shatavari weight gain lov cost liv 52 cheap albendazole sale where to buy viagra pills half inderal la order zyvox canada discount medco mail order pharmacy reviews ventolin hfa directions for use can you buy kamagra soft over the counter in germany buy levothroid online from usa decadron without script side effects of robaxin tablets what is flexeril like the sons of sol pharmacy house episode 1 suppliers of zofran in us how long does it take doxycycline to work warfarin drug interactions list billig acai online kaufen hong kong buy decadron online hoodia online coupon code is there a drug comparative to medrol shuddha guggulu canada prescription furosemide tablets price order periactin rx mail-order reglan can you get a new blood clot while on coumadin pharmacy discount card healthcare alliance scam revia weight gain brand trental buy sumycin coupons aciphex online purchase ordering levitra super active generic 20mg buy pletal greece alesse pharmacy prescription fedex cash nitroglycerin pas cher cardura online cheap fml forte prices cvs what is flagyl 400 used for lexapro rx assist cordarone daily use reviews ovulos flagyl precio can you buy zebeta approved generic nymphomax visa dostinex birth control online india viagra fast shipping overnight ventolin mg price how to get avalide drug buying aspirin in ireland can you get bactrim over counter legal to buy paxil buy prednisolone 20mg rhinocort generic name wellbutrin xl generic name flagyl er to buy in england does viagra work for diabetics can you take diet pills with strattera triderm unguent ma?? what is doxycycline for cats used for fincar on line no script where to buy zofran online insurance times top 50 insurers how to get moduretic drug indian reglan pharmacy technician online study guide actos discount program 45mg ventolin mg mexico buy depakote tablets amantadine dosage children weight gain after stopping synthroid lamisil cream australia price betnovate cream price uk hydrochlorothiazide on line for sale no script cialis daily available canada liquid rogaine 5 review antiviral film watch online benzac ac gel price philippines cialis super active shoppers drug mart plavix australia companies only how to use alesse 21 generic diclofenac patch purchase bactroban pills isoptin online what is micardis telmisartan used for very cheap carafate buy amantadine next day over the counter ponstel sale ayurslim lexapro escitalopram oxalate tablets 10 mg tamoxifen 10 mg accutane buy online cheap cytotec abortion pill how to use keftab tablets us online buy voltaren without a subscription buy ciprodex ear drops kamagra wholesale price sandia la viagra natural buy actos pioglitazone hcl type diabetes diflucan uk brand name where can i buy trozodone pariet pills drugstore new erectile dysfunction drugs tetracycline tablets used get calan toronto finpecia online pharmacy uk +domperidone without a prescription ovary pain after ovulation clomid which uk site to buy tamoxifen cymbalta cost comparisons side effects of erythromycin in children epa gulf of mexico alliance medicine calan sr prescription singulair without insurance is there a drug comparative to prevacid pharmacy that sells toprol xl lov cost digoxin what is amlodipine besylate 5mg used for vpxl australia price what is quibron-t cozaar tablets for sale comprar tofranil portugal plendil weight gain cost of femcare how to take forzest mg where to buy methotrexate ointment cheap zyrtec pills comprar lipitor mais barato what type of medicine is mobic difference between clomid serophene buy plavix with e check diovan online australia ampicillin drug study scribd generic name for revia how long did it take for propecia to work what is bentyl 20 mg for avodart refills reglan drug schedule 100mg of viagra not working vardenafil canada pharmacy side effects of keflex 500 lotrisone express canada quiero comprar baclofen walmart otc anxiety treatment can you buy famvir common side effects of sarafem real viagra from uk canadian alliance terminals ltd contact forum acheter viagra en ligne altace online meds strattera rx