Main Menu
All material on this website is the copyright of somebody. You are welcome to link to this site, however, if you wish to reproduce from it please contact the webmaster or secretary for permission. Whilst every care is taken in the construction of this site neither GLASS nor its contributors can be held responsible for errors or omissions. GLASS is not responsible for the content of external websites.

The History of the Countryside PDF Print E-mail


Along the river to Stretford beyond Tothele; from there straight along the public road which was called by the ancients 'stret' and is now 'fos'; to the other Stretford under Bubbethorne, to the water which is called Ingelbourne

The Foss Way in the Latin bounds of Brokenborough (Wiltshire), 956408

By far the greater part of modern roads go back at least to the Saxon age, and many thousands of miles of them, the ridgeways, have had a continuous existence going back into times long before history began.

G.B. Grundy, 193318

Roads, bridleways, and footpaths tell the traveller how to get to his destination by a route which avoids some natural obstacles; they provide a surface for wheels or feet, and bridges, fords, etc. to overcome other natural obstacles; and they have boundaries within which to confine the traveller and his animals and thus to prevent conflict between travellers and residents.

In modern Britain these three functions are usually combined, but this need not be so. In the less mountainous parts of modern Greece the climate does not require ordinary roads to have special surfaces, the customs of land tenure do not require them to be fenced, and it is thus very easy to make new roads. The stranger is confronted with a plethora of minor roads not marked on the map; it is embarrassingly difficult to distinguish roads in use from disused or unfinished roads, the public Highway from private tracks, and even between roads and the rest of the landscape. The much more stable road system of Britain is partly the consequence of our climate and multitude of rivers, which require paths and roads to be structures and not mere routes; it also reflects English and Welsh, rather than Scottish or continental, attitudes to rights of way. The idea that ownership of land includes rights to keep the public off it and to be rude to well-behaved trespassers is partly due to the general increase in landowners' rights in the last 200 years; but traces of this idea can be found in documents from earlier periods and in the landscape itself.

A well-developed road system is often supposed to be comparatively modern, a product of what we like to think of as an industrial society. Previously, we are told, there had been a 'pre-industrial society' of self-sufficient peasants; they usually stayed at home, and when they did go in for long-distance transport they used waterways. I have seen a learned article on medieval roads based on the fourteenth-century Gough Map, our earliest road-map, as if the main roads which it shows were the total road-system in existence. This thesis is based partly on general notions of progress and partly on complaints of the state of the roads: if roads were as bad in the sixteenth century as people then said theywere, they must have been worse in the fourteenth century and non-existent in the twelfth.

Archaeological and documentary evidence of roads and transport tell a very different story. Complaints are poor evidence: as our own times show, the public is never content with roads, however good, as long as there is a prospect of getting someone else's money spent on bettering them. Transport has had its ups and downs, but its primitive age passed away long before the earliest records. The pre-industrial society, if it ever existed, must be set far back into prehistory. Even in the Mesolithic period, tools of chert were transported well over 100 miles from the source of this rock in the Isle of Portland (Taylor 1979, p.7). From the Neolithic onwards Britain has had a fully-developed network of major and minor communications. The known Roman roads are but a small part of a system that penetrated to every part of England; they are no more representative of all roads in the Roman period than motorways are representative of all twentieth-century roads. By late Anglo-Saxon times it was possible to transport almost anything by land that could be transported before the eighteenth century; the problem of organizing the upkeep of main highways used for long-distance as well as local transport had partly been solved. Inland waterways were rudimentary at this time and for many centuries after.
Highways include not only main and minor roads joining settlements, but also lanes and ways leading to fields and woods. Their history is not merely of pedlars and pack-horses - important though the latter have been at certain times and in certain places.409 The design of roads, bridges, and town streets stems from the invention of the iron-tyred wheel in the Iron Age. No pack-horse can move heavy timber or large building stones. At least since the Anglo-Saxon period, carts have been part of ordinary farm equipment. Where narrow 'pack-horse' bridges survive, these are usually meant to carry pedestrians and animals dryshod while carts go through the adjoining ford. Anyone who has been to Genoa, the lesser Greek islands or the Near East will know the difference between our landscapes and townscapes, shaped by two thousand years of wheels, and those designed for mules and camels.

I shall use the word 'Highway' to include roads, bridleways, and footpaths. The verges as well as the metalling form part of the Highway and are included in its width, unless otherwise stated. 'Lane' will mean a road (less often a path) confined between hedges, fences, or ditches; 'track' will mean a road not so delimited.

Prehistoric tracks and lanes The actual fabric of prehistoric highways is beautifully preserved in the wooden 'trackways', of Neolithic to Iron Age date, across the peat of the Somerset Levels (Chapter 17). These were a specialized and sometimes very elaborate kind of Highway The technology died out before the historic period, and they have left no mark on the visible landscape.

The banks or cropmarks of disused 'Celtic' or other prehistoric field systems often reveal lanes as well as fields (Fig. 12.1 View). Most settlements and farmsteads were reached by at least one lane. Many of them had other lanes ending among fields; but, in prehistory as later, not every field adjoined a lane, and many could be reached only across other fields.

Where prehistoric field systems are still in use it is likely that the lanes that go with them are prehistoric too. This almost certainly true of many of the lanes of Cornwall. Indeed it is very possible, though difficult to prove, that much of our minor road system, at least in Ancient Countryside, is really prehistoric. Many lanes in Hampshire, Essex, or north-west Dorset are certainly of Anglo-Saxon antiquity, but as yet we have little evidence of how much older they may be. Students of disused field systems should look for instances (C.C. Taylor gives a Dorset example) where a lane between former prehistoric fields on downland is continued below the edge of the downland by an existing lane between fields still in use.

Prehistoric long-distance highways The Neolithic was already an age of industry. Stone tools were factory-made articles originating from particular sources of hard stone. The biggest industry was based on the flint mined at Grime's Graves in Norfolk (Chapter 16). Yet Norfolk is full of stone tools from the Lake District, Cornwall, and Wales. The facts of geology, with which there is no arguing, prove not only that Neolithic people had regular long-distance transport but that they had already developed the light-hearted 'coals to Newcastle' attitude to it with which we are familiar today. Transport increased with the invention of metals; and for every enterprise sending out stone or bronze articles which have survived there were probably ten others sending out perishable goods.

Long-distance roads such as the Icknield Way, the various Ridgeways, and the Pilgrims' Way in Stirrey are usually regarded as prehistoric main highways. This is based partly on tradition, but there is an argument which runs as follows. Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Age people lived on high ground where their settlements, barrows, and field systems are still obvious on what is now downland or moorland. These habitable areas were islands in a sea of uncultivable and impassable wildwood on heavy lowland soils. Main routes followed the populated ridges and crossed the inhospitable lowlands, if at all, by the shortest possible way.

This argument was convincing up to thirty years ago but has been weakened by new discovery. We now know that settlements were not specially concentrated on the high ground; the evidence is better preserved there because of less ploughing in more recent times. On low ground the evidence is at least as abundant but is more difficult to find. The 'Jurassic Way' from Stamford to Banbury was claimed in 1940 as prehistoric on the grounds that most of the sites then known lay close to it; vastly more sites have been found since then, and the Jurassic Way is now seen to avoid the more populous parts of Northamptonshire (Taylor 1979). Moreover, the argument that highways with settlements along their length were necessarily important is unsound. Roman, Anglo-Saxon, and medieval minor settlements often avoided contemporary main roads (Fig. 12.2 View), for very good reason. A trunk road is a Highway for armies. At least two armies out of three will be either hostile or unfed; main roads are dangerous neighbours.

The traditional 'prehistoric tracks' are probably genuine, at least in their general direction. Indeed their exact courses, if not their boundaries, are sometimes proved by Anglo-Saxon records and parish boundaries to be well over a thousand years old. Many are ridgeways, minimizing the need for river crossings although, knowing little of what prehistoric people could accomplish in making bridges and fords, we cannot say how advantageous this was. Sometimes, as with the Icknield Way in Cambridgeshire, they avoid heavy soils on which paving would be needed. Often they provide alternative routes. The traveller along the Chilterns, for instance, could choose between the 'Upper Icknield Way', following the chalk escarpment above the spring-line, and the 'Lower Icknield Way' over the claylands at the foot of the scarp. The upper would have been an all-weather road but had steep hills and many diversions round valleys; the lower saved time and effort but its many fords and sloughs would have made it a summer and autumn route (see also Figs. 2.3, 12.3 View)

It can no longer be asserted that the recognized prehistoric tracks are the whole, or even the most important, of those that existed. There were presumably others, at least as important, on low ground, which can now rarely be distinguished from other roads. And the distinction between prehistoric and Roman roads turns out to be less definite than we should expect.

Roman Roads

The most obvious legacy of the Romans to modern England is the roads whose uncompromising red lines stare out of almost every page of the motoring atlas. According to tradition, these roads were laid out hy military engineers to link towns and fortresses across the intervening miles of trackless and houseless wildwood. On this principle the system is simple and we understand it already; it is fun to discover unknown Roman roads or to fill in gaps in partially preserved ones, but there is nothing fundamentally new to be found out.

The first flaw in this interpretation is that the majority of Romano-British villages, villas, etc. are not on known Roman roads. A roadless settlement was no more reasonable then than it is now. The roads that we recognize as Roman are merely the trunk roads among a network of lesser roads which, over much of England, can scarcely have been less dense than it is today. The trunk roads were not a pioneering enterprise: they were added to an existing Iron Age network, and they involved expropriating the lands of people who happened to be in the way. The system was maintained, and presumably adapted, during four centuries of great changes in population and commerce. The problems dealt with by the Roman Highway authorities were not, perhaps, so very different from those of their twentieth-century successors.

How Roman roads were organized The Latin language is rich in words for different kinds of road. In other provinces of the Empire, the Romans had much the same classification of major and minor roads as we have in Britain today. At about the time the Romans were conquering Britain, Siculus Flaccus wrote in his textbook of surveying:

There are state roads (uiae publicae), which are maintained at state expense and bear the names of their originators. These are in the charge of superintendents and are repaired by contractors. For the upkeep of some of them a fixed sum is charged to the [local] landowners from time to time.

There are also local roads (oicina/es) which branch off the state roads into the country and often run through to other state roads. These are maintained in a different way, by the counties ~agi), that is by the head-men of the counties, who normally charge the work of keeping them up to the landowners. Sometimes, we understand, they assign to each Landowner certain sections across his own land, which are kept up at his expense. At the ends of the sections they put up notices to show which landlord has to keep up which section over whose land.

There is a [private] right of way to all [pieces of] land. Sometimes, if there is no local road, the way goes over someone else's land . . . this does not provide a right of way for the general public, but [only] for those who have to get to their [own] fields on these roads. There are also shared roads which branch off local roads; these sometimes form a right of way between the two landowners at their further ends, who share the cost equally at their joint expense.410

Other Roman authors confirm that there was a great variety of Highway authorities responsible for the upkeep of particular roads and classes of roads. Major repairs or making a new main road were the work of emperors, consuls, or benefactors, whose deeds are inscribed on milestones. On the whole this was a civilian matter, but the army took some part in making new roads, especially in
the more distant provinces.411

Britain became one such a distant province in AD 43, and its first twenty years were bloody and precarious. Boadicea's revolt in 61 horrified even the Roman world; two of her three massacres would have been averted had the legions got there in time. We should therefore expect to find more evidence of the army and of military roads than in most other provinces of the Empire.

The Roman era in Britain was as long and as eventful as the interval between the Reformation and the motor-car. After the first century the military front moved away north and west, leaving Lowland England as an ordinary civilian region. It had inherited an Iron Age road system and a Roman military road system, neither of them intended for the purposes of the second century. Alterations to road systems during the Roman period should be looked for. The fate of 'General Wade's' roads in Scotland (p.272) is a parallel for what happens to military roads when civilians do not use them. Many substantially-built Roman roads have disappeared so completely that they can only be found by excavation; did they already fall into disuse in Roman times?

Structure and boundaries A Roman road typically had two side-ditches, between which was a raised embankment (Latin agger) bearing a surface metalled with gravel, stone, or ironworks slag.411 The ditches might be 80 feet apart, the agger 40 feet wide and 3 feet high, and the metalling 20 feet wide. Not all main roads had ditches and agger; and the dimensions varied widely, even between different parts of the same road, for reasons which are little known.

Roads had bridges and paved fords. In difficult terrain there were causeways and cuttings; elsewhere in the Empire there were massive timber substructures on soft ground and tunnels through mountains.

Kinds of Roman main road What we notice about Roman roads is their straightness on the map. They do not have quite the same mindless geometry as in the American Mid-West, where a nineteenth-century road will go through a swamp, or bridge a bend in a river twice, rather than mar its straight course by going round. But the Roman surveyors evidently did not look around for the easiest or quickest or most easily defended way between two points. The route chosen was instead the most direct way, and was influenced only by the more formidable natural obstacles. Gradients, fens, wet hilltops, perils of ambush, and any protests of people whose land lay in the way were usually ignored.

The Romans were masters of surveying (Taylor 1979). Whoever set out the Foss Way evidently knew in which direction Lincoln lay from Exeter, to within a fraction of a degree, and also knew that the Somerset Levels and multiple river-crossings in Nottinghamshire were insuperable obstacles to going there direct. Between the two deviations round these obstacles, the middle 150 miles of the Foss Way never depart by more than 6½ miles from the direct line. The departures are not accidental; they are due to the method of setting out the road on the ground in detail after its general alignment had been determined. This was evidently done by sighting from hilltop to hilltop; the road therefore changes direction slightly every few miles, nearly always on high ground (Fig.12.2 View).
The surveyor of Peddar's Way, starting at the north-west corner of Norfolk, knew to within ½ degree which way to go to reach a certain ford of the Little Ouse, 42 miles away. The road twice deviates very slightly, each time on a hilltop, but returns to the original line on reaching the ford (Fig. 12.3 View).

Roman roads vary in the character of their minor realignments. On Peddar's Way there is one absolutely straight stretch of 19 miles between hilltops; further south, what is probably the same road went for 22 miles ruler-straight into Essex. In contrast, Stane Street, the road west from Coichester, looks amateurish with its very frequent changes of direction, rarely more than two miles straight at a stretch and often much less. These are extreme examples of two kinds of Roman road. Peddar's Way and the Foss Way have rare, sometimes rather abrupt, realignments; Stane Street, and the road from London to Colchester and on towards Norwich, have frequent slight changes of direction.

The reason for the two types of Roman main road has not yet been found (if indeed it has been sought) but I shall risk some guesses. The Foss Way was probably made in the heat of war, to join the military bases of Exeter and Lincoln and to support the front line which lay for a time not far to the west. It was surveyed in a hurry through potentially hostile territory; its planners, having all the manpower of the Roman army to do the hard work, had no need to search for ways round minor obstacles; they could reduce the aligning of the road to a mere problem in navigation. Peddar's Way also appears to be a military road. It has led nowhere in historic times - much ink has flowed in vain attempts to invent a destination for it - but it makes sense as one of a grid of roads built to hold down the territory of the Iceni, Boadicea's tribe. Similar roads were made in all directions from London, even into friendly Sussex, to ensure that there should never be another Boadicea.

Roads of the Stane Street type generally have an evident civilian function. Stane Street itself linked Colchester with lesser towns at Braintree and Braughing. Another road of the same kind went north to the capital of the Iceni at Caistor-by-Norwich and a third went south-west to the London area. Such roads are met by the straighter type of road in such a way as often to suggest that the straighter roads are later. Sometimes they conform to field patterns and sometimes not: Stane Street itself cuts across the earlier hedgerow pattern around Braintree as does the Roman road in Fig.8.4, but in The Saints, Suffolk (Fig. 8.2 ) a field system which we have conjectured to be of the Bronze Age has a 'Roman road' conforming to it.

The matter is illuminated by P.C. Dewhurst's study of what is now the green lane called by Cambridge people The Roman Road, alias Wool Street.412 It begins 4 miles south-east of Cambridge and runs for some 11 miles in the dir(cflon of Colchester (Fig. 12.4 View). In 1959 a pipe-trench was dug along the whole 11 miles and revealed its construction. The part nearest Cambridge looks like a Roman road of the Peddar's Way type and follows the canons of Roman road-building: it had two boundary ditches 42 feet apart, the chalk from which was used to form a raised agger which was metalled with gravel. Where this road crossed the pre-existing Icknield Way the agger was lessened in height to form a level crossing. Wool Street next intersects another Roman road of the Peddar's Way type, leading from the military town at Great Chesterford, in such a way as to establish that Wool Street came first. After this crossing, Wool Street changes its character. Its agger peters out and its straight course disappears. It is still recognizable as a 'Roman road', but becomes a wandering one of the Stane Street type, and in section it is no longer raised but a holloway. The difference is clear even on the 1-inch map but until the excavation nobody noticed it.

Wool Street evidently began as a prehistoric road from Coichester to the small Iron Age town of Cambridge. The rest of it has disappeared but for a length, also a holloway, in and near Chalkney Wood, Essex (p.276).413 Early in the Roman period it was modernized, straightened and given an agger. (A certain cart, jolting over the roadworks, spilt a load of Nottinghamshire coal, which is still there buried under the Roman gravel.) The work began at the Cambridge end and was abandoned 9 miles out, leaving the rest of Wool Street in the Iron Age state in which it still remains. The Great Chesterford road was added later in the Roman era.

Even among main roads, the distinction between Roman and prehistoric is thus not very clear. The original planning of Wool Street has to be set back at least to the Iron Age. The same is almost certainly true of Stane Street and may be of the less straight 'Roman roads' in general. In the century before the Roman conquest, Britons could have learnt about Roman road surveying and have tried their hands at copying it. The very straight Roman roads appear, on the whole, to be the work of the Roman army, although Wool Street proves that some even of these are adaptations of earlier roads. Further research may discover among Roman main roads all the changes and complexities that we should expect of a 400-year-old network.

Minor roads Roads with aggers and other obvious Roman features were the class-A and class-B roads of the Romano-British period. The innumerable minor roads were much more diverse than the main roads. The Roman or late Iron Age grids of fields in south Essex (Plate XIII) were served by grids of lanes; in recent decades these lanes have come up in the world, and juggernaut lorries ceaselessly negotiate their right-angle bends on the way to Tilbury Docks. In the unplanned Roman landscape of the Fens the roads - now revealed only as cropmarks - show the same kind of irregularity as prehistoric minor road systems (p.383). Presumably some pre-existing main roads, such as the Icknield Way in Norfolk (Fig. 12.3 View), which were duplicated by Roman roads, survived unmodernized as minor roads. We can rarely be sure of distinguishing minor Roman from prehistoric roads; who can say how many existing country lanes date from either period?

Anglo-Saxon Highways

It is sometimes supposed that the Roman road system went out of use and was later partly restored. This is unrealistic. Roads are highly artificial and survive only through continuous use. A gravel road neglected for five years gets overgrown with bushes; after ten years it becomes a thicket more impenetrable than if it had never been a road. Blackthorn has a nasty habit of growing on disused highways and powerfully induces passers-by to go round some other way.

The survival of so many Roman roads is a strong argument for continuity of communication and settlement from the Roman to the Anglo-Saxon period. Roman roads that survive in bits and pieces are more eloquent than those that are still through routes. The men of London and Colchester might have kept open a way between those towns, even if all the intervening country had become a wilderness. But what of the road between Braughing and Great Chesterford? Both places ceased to be towns; the Roman road between them was not kept up as a through route, and Rockell's Wood has for centuries blocked its course (Fig. 12.5 View). But there were still people in these Essex-Hertfordshire backwoods for whom bits of it were of use as local roads. Every few years, through the darkest of the Dark Ages, there has been somebody from Duddenhoe End and Brent Pelham to take a billhook to the blackthorn on two short stretches of Roman road, which stand out by their straightness amid the maze of lanes.

By the later Anglo-Saxon period big heavy things like millstones, timber, salt, iron, and bells and fragile things like pots were being transported to and from the remotest parts of England. Building stone was not necessarily local: stone from Barnack (Peterborough) and Box (near Bath) is found in many places up to 80 miles from the quarry.414 People thought little of going overland to Italy.

The supreme test of Anglo-Saxon communications came in the last weeks of the period. On 20 September 1066 King Harold was told in London that Hardrada had invaded the north. The king covered the 200 miles to York probably in 41/2 days. He gathered an army and smote the Danes at Stamford Bridge (note the place-name). Duke William landed at Pevensey, 250 miles from York, on 28 September. Within three days Harold had heard of this second invasion. It took him just four days to get back to London, this time taking his army, which, as we all know, was nearly sufficient to win the Battle of Hastings on 13 October. Few campaigns until the age of helicopters have packed more action into three weeks; it is a tribute not only to Harold's generalship and the endurance of his men but to the effort that his predecessors had put into organizing roads for just such a contingency.

Highways in the Anglo-Saxon charters One in six of the features in English charter boundaries has to do with communications. A total of 1654 roads, ways, and paths are mentioned, 11.6 per cent of all English boundary features; they outnumber every other class of artificial object. Fords and bridges make a further 4.6 per cent of features. In Welsh boundaries, roads etc. form only 4.4 per cent of features and fords a further 2.8 per cent.

Highways are distributed almost evenly throughout England, except in the Fens (Fig. 12.6 View). Charters from Ancient Countryside mention them rather less often (10.4 per cent) than those from future Planned Countryside (12.8 per cent). Highways were probably at least as numerous in the former but less often selected because there were plenty of woods, hedges, and trees which could be used as landmarks instead.

The many Old English words for Highway indicate some thought of classification. The most important highways were called straet, 'street'. These were evidently vehicle roads, often Roman; many of them are still main roads today. Some had names: there are frequent references to Watling Street (already so called throughout its length), the Berkshire Icknield Street, Ermine Street, and 'Buggilde straet' (now called Ryknild Street, a Roman road in Worcestershire). The Foss Way is often mentioned (see quotation at the head of this chapter).

The term herepao occurs 221 times. It literally means 'army path' and is commonly taken to signify a road made for military purposes. When identified on the map, however, herepaos usually turn out to be ordinary roads without apparent military importance; for instance there is one on the Lizard Peninsula (Cornwall). In Latin charters the phrase used is never the expected via militaris but is instead via publica, a phrase reminiscent of Siculus Flaccus and possibly meaning a road maintained at public expense. This suggests that the idea behind herepao (and the occasional herestaet) is that of a Highway wide enough for an army; and that in practice it means a B-class road in contrast to the straet which is an A-class road. Herepa6s rarely have proper names.

There is also a regional difference. In the Midlands, north-east England, and Kent straet is the commoner term and is used for almost all main roads. In Wessex and Devon most main roads were called herepao, the word straet being reserved for a few very important ones.

Nearly half the highways in the charters are called weg, 'way'. This term probably means something less important than a herepao, but it may also have been vague as in later centuries; the same road in Berkshire is called Icenhilda straet and Icenhilda weg. Most wegs are now minor roads, but whether they were all vehicular in Anglo-Saxon times is uncertain; once a 'wheel-way' is specified. Ways are fairly evenly distributed, except that few are designated in the London Basin, Weald, or Essex.

The terms pao 'path' and stig (Modern German Steig, 'path') are the bottom rank of highways, corresponding presumably to modern bridleways and footpaths (occasionally a 'horsepath' is specified). They are less often mentioned than the others; pao is commonest in the Dorset Chalklands and stig in the Woodless Cotswolds, but little can be made of their distribution.

The word 'road' itself is unknown in Anglo-Saxon literature - it is curiously rare before the seventeenth century - but it does occur, as Old English rod, some fifty times in charters. (The exact frequency is uncertain because of confusion with rod, 'rood', ie. crucifix.) The context implies some kind of Highway but the exact meaning cannot be inferred; there is nothing to support the conjecture of some commentators that a track through a wood, the original of the modern 'ride', is meant. R6d is scattered over most of England.

'Lane' (lane) occurs eighteen times; it is thinly scattered but is absent from areas with a strong open-field tradition. It may well mean, as in the Middle Ages and later, a minor road between hedges, but this cannot be proved.

Many highways are described as greenways, stone-streets, broadways, small-ways, sandy-ways, roughways, etc. The commonest term of usage is sealtstraet, which (with sealtr6d, seahpao, etc.) occurs eighteen times, mainly to the south of the great inland salt-deposits of Worcestershire. Other terms are portstr~t, meaning a road to a market town, and cyricpac) or cyricstig 'church-path' (Fig. 9.5). About one way in fifteen was a 'ridgeway' (hiycgweg), a term found all over England but especially in south Berkshire where there are still many named Ridgeways (eg. Fig. 2.3).

All classes of Highway are quite often described as 'old'. Many ways, paths, etc. were already worn down by centuries of usage: the terms 'holloway' (hola weg), 'hollow path', etc. occur thirty-eight times.

River and stream crossings These are mentioned 666 times in English charters, one-sixth being bridges and the rest fords. Their distribution depends mainly on the character of the rivers - Devon, with its countless small streams, has the highest proportion of fords and very few bridges. Bridges are also rare in chalkland regions with their shallow streams. At the other extreme, in the Fens with their presumably deep and muddy watercourses, half the crossings are bridges. Bridges were also common in North-East England, the Thames valley, Kent, Essex, and the Hampshire Basin.

Place-names give us a different insight into Anglo-Saxon river crossings. About 520 settlements in Domesday Book are named after crossings; of these only some forty mention bridges, the rest being fords or wades. The smaller proportion of bridges is very significant, especially as the crossings generating place-names are likely to be more important than those merely chosen as landmarks. Evidently the place-names date on average from a time when bridges were much less common than in the period of the charters. Towns named after bridges (eg. Boroughbridge, Bridgnorth) have a habit of not being mentioned in Domesday: either they did not exist in 1086 or they were then too recent to have administrative status.

Ford and bridge names have a curious geographical distribution. They are, of course, commonest in Devon, where 8 per cent of places in Domesday Book are named after river-crossings; but why should Huntingdonshire, Oxfordshire, and Berkshire have only slightly fewer? And at the other extreme, why should Lancashire, East Yorkshire, and Sussex each have fewer than 1 place in 100 named after a ford or bridge?

We know nothing of how major fords were arranged. The mind boggles at the thought of main roads crossing the unbridged Thames at Oxford or Wallingford. The frequent place-name Stanford suggests a constructed ford of stone like those which still exist on minor roads, but the evidence has usually been dredged away. Occasional mentions of 'earth-bridge' in the charters remind us that in literary Old English brycg is said to mean 'causeway' as well as 'bridge', but this meaning seems to be rare in topography; a causeway is of no use in crossing a river unless it has a bridge in the middle.

Bridge-repair was neglected in the disorganized centuries after the twilight of Rome. Each of the dozen or more Stratford place-names in England tells of a Roman bridge allowed to rot away. I have, however, found thirteen instances in the charters of stan brycg 'stone bridge', one of them an 'old stone bridge'. Some of these were probably Roman bridges still in use; there are several Roman bridges still in use today in southern Europe, albeit mainly in climates where wet masonry is not attacked by frost as it is here. During the Anglo-Saxon period most of the important bridges were reinstated, and a number of unim-portant crossings were bridged. By 1086 place-names such as Bridgeford had become frequent, although Forde (Hants) did not get its name of Fordingbridge until later.

Bridge-work was probably organized by the state. From at least the eighth century it was one of the 'three common dues' (the others being military service and work on fortifications), obligations imposed by the Crown on all landowners. However generous the king might otherwise be, he almost never remitted these duties. The detailed pre-Conquest specification of Rochester bridge happens to survive.415 Anglo-Saxon engineers had somehow contrived to build a timber-framed bridge of ten spans across the deep and fiercely tidal Medway. The landowners of dozens of named places were made responsible for the upkeep of individual piers and spans. This principle of pontage - spreading the repair cost of a bridge among the townships at some distance on either side of it - was to become a normal method of maintaining bridges in the Middle Ages; as late as C. 1720 my college refused to pay towards Magdalene Bridge, Cambridge, as we should have done on account of owning lands beyond it.

A greater achievement still was the bridging implied by North and South Fambridge in south-east Essex (Fig. 12.7 View). The road and field grids of the Rochford and Dengie peninsulas line up across the Crouch estuary that divides them. A principal Roman road would have crossed between the two Fambridges, both so named (Fanbruge, 'fen-bridge') in Domesday Book. But there has been no bridge since the Middle Ages; the tides of the Crouch sweep 1/4 mile wide between the bridgeheads, though the Ordnance Survey remembers a ferry.

Unless we care to swim our horse, like a gallant lover and his lass in 1598,416 we must try 3 miles upstream at Hullbridge. Here we find that the medieval bridge fell down in the seventeenth century and has not been replaced, though the map, optimistic as ever, claims a ford. The lowest twentieth-century bridge, Battlesbridge, is 5 miles above the Anglo-Saxon bridge.

Medieval Roads

In the Middle Ages the road system of England was rather denser than it is now. The remote dispersed parish of Wimbish (Essex) had at least twenty-five roads known by name417 this not particularly well documented place is typical of Ancient Countryside, in which almost all the modern lanes existed, together with others that have disappeared. Every wood, meadow, house, and barn and most fields and furlongs had vehicle access, and there were also Footpath rights-of-way across fields. Moors and heaths were criss-crossed with tracks linking hamlets and farms (p.279). In open-field areas only the through roads have survived to the present; the countless ways leading to the strips have mostly been swept away by enclosure.
Much less has been written on medieval than on Roman roads, but there can be no doubt of their importance: what of the Canterbury Tales or the ceaseless journeys of King John? Monasteries depended on pilgrims and on the commercial running of distant estates. In the seaward Fens, every particle of the stone, timber, lime, iron and lead used to build the great twelfth and thirteenth-century churches had to be brought from a distance and to be paid for out of the sale of produce at a distance. The East Anglian cloth industry was not located near its raw material or its markets. Any town presupposes arrangements for moving thousands of tons of various materials. Detailed illustration may be sought in M.K. James's study of the wine trade,418 or in L.F. Salzman's chapter on the gongfarmers whose duty was to transport tons of 'dounge' out of urban cesspits into the country.361
The cost of road transport in the period l250-l450, when the value of money was relatively stable, averaged about 1 3d. per ton-mile for goods that were not fragile or perishable (Fig. 12.8 View). This seems expensive to us; for instance the cost of moving ordinary oak timber 50 miles was roughly equal to the original cost of the tree.'54 Water transport, where available, cost about a fifth as much. But there was little economizing in transport, and the documents refuse to support the theory that heavy materials were always of local origin or else were moved by water. When the twelfth-century monks of Abingdon (Berks) wanted timber, they sent twelve-ox wains 120 miles to North Wales,361 passing by on the way the third and fourth largest concentrations of woodland in England at the time.
The medievals were not great builders of new roads. They planned many new towns (eg. Bury St Edmund's) and sometimes made short stretches of new main road in consequence. Parts of the Fens (p.389) seem to have medieval planned rural road systems. New roads presumably also arose from casual shdrt-cuts hardening into highways. But written records of the conscious making of even minor roads are rare:

The Abbot and Convent shall, at their own expense, cause a hedge to be planted lengthwise from the first gate [on 'Magdeleyn lane'] up to the second, so that the place may become a lane (venella) between the two gates . . . taking branches from the trees growing in the said hedge to maintain the hedge.

Colchester Cartulary, 1272419

This establishes what was meant at the time by 'lane' and by its Latin equivalent venella (cf. Modern Scots vennel).

Documentation of roads Roads and paths appear in documents as permanent features of the landscape. Any through road, even between two villages, is dignified as 'the king's way' (regia via); lesser highways are called 'common way', 'lane', 'church-way' (via ecciesiastica), etc. Surveyors used highways to define the location of pieces of land; manorial Courts fined people for misusing or failing to maintain the Highway. A typical survey entry is:

A croft [ie. hedged field] called Woodwardescroft between the Lord's wood called Walramswoode [now Lord's Wood] on the west and the croft called Mellerscroft on the east; one end abuts on the way from Ledenrothyng to Goodleste' [Good Easter] on the north, the other on the Abbess of Berkyng's land.

Leaden Roding (Essex) 1439292

Medieval petty Courts were as much concerned with road offences as their modern successors. The commonest transgression was allowing ditches (or worse) to flood the Highway:

John Unwyne does not clean his ditch towards Sowenewode [Soane Wood, Chapter 7] on the King's way, to the public Nuisance.

Court roll, Co/chester, 1312420

Nicholas Ravensby . has a slowe [slough, a soft place in a lane] and 2 perches of ditch making a Nuisance in Hawkeley lane

Court roll, Great Canfield (Essex) 1507288

William Barbor junior built a latrine on his holding which runs into the King's way to the Nuisance of passers-by.

Court roll, Hatfield Broad-oak (Essex) 1443274

Every court had such cases by the score; at Little Bentley (Essex) in the 1480s the going rate for fines was ld. per perch (5'/2 yards) of offending ditch.421 Barbor did nothing about his latrine and was fined for it at every subsequent court for at least four years.

Almost as common were fines for leaving timber, wood, earth, muckheaps, dead horses, etc. on the Highway or for digging pits in it. The Highway could be obstructed by allowing hedges and trees to overgrow it (p.187).

A general duty to help with the upkeep of local highways and bridges was often an obligation of land tenure. Farmers were also expected to maintain particular bridges and culverts where water from their land ran on to the Highway:

John Dowe ought to make a bridge, called a fotebregge, in the King's way leading from Dunmowe to Ratfeld brodok . on pain of losing 4s.

Great Canfield 1510288

Little positive attention seems to have been given to surfacing roads, but this mattered less than it would now: wheels were designed for soft ground and many roads were wide enough to pick a way round sloughs. A big consignment of timber was once sent in 1309 from Gamlingay to Grantchester (Cambs) 'at Christmas in hard Frost'.422

Ownership of highways; purprestures Minor lanes were occasionally private property:

Lane. Item, pasture in the lane (venella) leading from Rothyng Tye to Albosdonn 1 acre 2¾ roods 0 perches

Leaden Roding survey, 1439292

With this exception, and except also for unfenced footpaths across fields, highways were part of the common-land of the manor. They had definite boundaries (hedges or ditches) and did not belong to the adjacent farmers (cf. p.281). Much business in manorial Courts was concerned with encroachments on common-land, called purprestures.

Purprestures could occur on any common-land, but they most often took the form of narrowing a road, either by a neighbouring farmer pushing out his frontage or by a third party setting up a smallholding within the road itself (Fig.12.9 View). Manorial Courts often condoned purprestures on payment of an annual fme to the lord of the manor:

Robert Cok made a purpresture in the common way, 10 ft long and 1 ft wide . .

Court roll, Redlingfield, Suffolk, 1276423

A purpresture near the Pillory, 54 ft long, 4 ft wide at one end and 1 ft wide at the other end.

Court roll, Earl's Come, Essex, 1428-9424

A purpresture . . . established by Richard Gyva, turner, of Takeleghe
[bounded] by the ditch of the close of the tenant of the said Richard . . . on the north, and the king's way called Stanstret [the Roman road, p.255] on the south; 65 ft long by the said ditch [measured] by a ruler, and in width at both ends and in the middle 3 ft by a ruler. [Gyva paid ld. a year for it.]

Hatfield Broad-oak 1448274

Also at Hatfield, rents were collected in 1328 for 'a certain place of purpresture for a muckheap' and '1 pit of purpresture outside the gate' ;425 in 14467 John Nedeman was fined for appropriating 14 feet by 8 feet of the King's way for 'a
lay-by (diuersorium) to put his cart in'. 274

A more complicated affair came before the royal Courts in 1412. Sir Thomas Hengrave and three others had been granted a licence to divert the road from Mutford to Carlton Colville (north-east Suffolk) where it passed through Mutford Wood; they had stopped up the old road but had not made a new one, and did not own the land on which to do so. The gang were also in trouble for narrowing another road and throwing mud from their ditches on to it, as well as on poaching charges.426 (The diverted road exists to this day around what remains of the wood.)

Main roads Which were the main roads? The Gough Map, made c.1360, shows main roads throughout Great Britain.427 It is also possible to analyze which roads were used on their daily movements by restless kings such as John and Edward 1428

Many medieval main roads are still trunk roads, but there are important differences of detail. The main road into Cornwall did not march across Bodmin Moor and Gossmoor as does the present A30 but went by devious ways round to the north. At the time of the Peasants' Revolt (1381) the main road from London to Norwich crossed the River Lark at Temple Bridge (Icklingham, Suffolk) where there is now but a Breckland cart-track. The present Al the Roman road known from Anglo-Saxon times as Ermine Street - was not the only medieval main road from London through Huntingdonshirc; there was a choice of three parallel routes, of which Ermine Street is the only one still a main road (Taylor 1979). Similar alternative routes existed in many other places; the state of the road surface and bridges doubtless determined which would be used at any one time. This is why many an obscure lane is now called Old London Road.

Bridges When going to Cornwall by road, the discerning traveller leaves England by one of three great bridges within 7 miles of each other. Greyston Bridge, Horsebridge, and Gunnislake New Bridge are all of the fifteenth century and are still perfect; they cross the Tamar in the deep wooded meanders of its gorge. These are remarkable in their survival, but such a proliferation of noble stone bridges was typical of the later Middle Ages. London Bridge, alas, is no more; but we still have the great tidal bridges of Bideford and Barnstaple (Devon) and Wadebridge (Cornwall); the town bridges of Durham (two), Wakefield, Mon-mouth, Abergavenny, and Stratford-on-Avon; the east Midland bridges of St Ives, Bromham, and Great Barford; the two bridges in the bend of the Dart gorge at Holne Chase (Devon); the Auld Brig o'Ayr, the Auld Brig o'Balgownie (Aberdeen) and the bridge of Carrick-on-Suir (Ireland); the list could be extended to more than a page.

Timber-framed bridges in the Rochester manner have disappeared leaving no mark on the landscape - although the last main-road bridge in this tradition, at Selby (Yorkshire), was demolished only in the 1970s, and one still survives on the Wye below Hay. Something is known of the carpentry of the lesser bridges, whose timbers come to light when moats are drained.429

Exeter West Bridge was one of the earliest of the long stone bridges; six-and-a-half of its original round Norman arches are still extant. It was followed in the thirteenth century by the bridge between Huntingdon and Godmanchester. The masons of these towns could not agree on the architectural details, which change halfway across; but they knew their business, for their bridge now withstands the hourly assault of Juggernaut at fifteen times the load that they would have anticipated.

The chronology of bridge-building is best studied in Cornwall. In the 1920s Charles Henderson recorded thirty-two medieval bridges then extant and written evidence of a further thirty-five. He found also fifty place-names involving the Cornish word pons 'bridge'.430 Five out of six of the bridges themselves were in the eastern half of Cornwall, where the big rivers are; but five out of six pons place-names are in the western half of the county (Fig. 12.10 View). (Cornish-language names of settlements are equally common in both halves.)

I interpret this as meaning that pons could be used of even a small bridge or culvert. Bridges began in Cornwall before 930 - the earliest instance of pons -but were still rather few by the twelfth century, when Cornish ceased to be an active language in east Cornwall. Most bridges were built after 1200 and were therefore named in Cornish in west Cornwall, where the language still lived, but in English in the east. Cornwall was a rather poor and backward region, in which bridging probably came later than in England; but for the same reason many ancient bridges survive in the county.
Ordinary bridges were usually maintained by individuals as a manorial custom:

At Churche Ende, Dunmowe, there is a bridge whiche is daungerous, and so evill that neither horse, nor cart may well pass without danger, neither can men convenientlie parse therebi being the Church path without great annoyaunce. The which bridge is to be repaired by the landeholders of the Parsonage.
We find another bridge broke and gone . . . call Stebbeyng Ford Bryge, but who shall make them, we do not know.

Great Dunmow (Essex), Quarter Sessions, 1562431

Henderson drew attention to the variety of ways in which lords, corporations, and local authorities maintained major bridges, sometimes out of philanthropy, sometimes for the income from tolls. The great bridges had a spiritual and not merely a utilitarian significance: they were works of charity and piety, the gift of benefactors or subscribed by the public through indulgences. Many of them had chapels or even resident hermits.


In the wood of the Prior at Brunne there was a certain carpenter named Peter de Burgo, a good and trusty man. He was cutting down the wood and selling it, and had taken two other carpenters to cut up the timber. Re had made himself a shanty in the wood, in which he ate and drank and spent the night with his mates

Two wealthy and well-known merchants from near Stamford and three strangers . . . were travelling together on the way which is called Arningstrete. They came under the wood of the said Prior after sunset . . . and there the strangers made an attack on the merchants, wounded them, and pulled them from their horses and killed them. The cries of the merchants were heard in the church of [Long] Stowe . . . The inquest decided that the said Peter was not guilty of the death of the merchants, because . . . when they were killed he was in church at Brunne.

The news later came to the ears of King E[dward I] of the death of the merchants and of the place where they had been slain. And an edict went out through all the counties of England that all woods through which there was a common right of way should be cut down to a width of sixty feet on either side of the king's road. And the landowners were set a time-limit under heavy penalty. When he beard this, the prior had the trees standing on the woodbank cut down, and the ditch levelled and filled in, and all the bushes rooted up to a depth of 60 feet . . . William Baldewyn [of Longstowe] did the same with his wood on the other side of the king's road, and so passers-by go in greater security than before.

Liber memorandorum ecclesie de Bernewelle, written 1295-6432

Medieval England, like modern Detroit, was dangerous: the traveller could expect to be mugged. Although heathland was the preferred habitat of the top highwaymen from Robin Hood to Dick Turpin, travellers had a strong and persistent fear of woods and wood-pastures. * Main roads avoided the vicinity of woods where possible, but where woodland was unavoidable it was the practice to make trenches, linear clearings each side of the road, to give travellers the appearance of security (Fig. 6.13, Plate III). This was begun before the Conquest in the Chilterns by the piety of Leofstan, Abbot of St Alban's.433 Many trenches were cut in the thirteenth century, and in 1285 they were made compulsory by a statute to which the Barnwell Chronicle, quoted above, was referring:

Commanded . - . that the high roads from merchant towns . be widened, where there are woods, or hedges, or ditches, so that there be no ditch, underwood (suthboys), or bushes, where a man may lurk to do evil near the road, for two hundred feet on one side and for two hundred feet on the other side. Provided that this statute does not apply to oaks, nor to great trees, if they are clear underneath. And if by default of the Lord, who may not want to remove ditch, underwood, or bushes as provided above, robberies are done . . . and murder, the Lord is to be fined at the will of the King. And if the Lord cannot cut down the underwood the country shall help him to do it. And the King wishes that in his demesne lands and woods within Forests or outside, the roads shall be widened as aforesaid.434

As far as I am aware no new trenches were made after 1300.†

The place of the Barnwell Chronicle murder is still instantly recognizable (Fig. 12.11 View). Arningstrete - Ermine Street, now the A14 - runs dark and narrow between Bourn Wood and Longstowe Wood, then as now the only woods on the long stretch from Huntingdon to Royston. The woods have been allowed to grow up to the road again and the scene is once more as it was on that spring evening 700 years ago. Longstowe church stands within earshot. Set back from the road and now within the woods are the thirteenth-century woodbanks (p.98) made to define the edges of the trenches.

Medieval statutes were not obeyed to the letter. The Bourn-Longstowe trenches are in fact 130 feet wide to the middle of the road. Trenches were made haphazardly: along Stane Street, Hatfield Forest has a trench, but I can find no trace of one in Dunmow High Wood. They were not confined to main roads: the village of Leafield, in the middle of the ring-shaped wooded Wychwood Forest, had several trenches leading to it, of which traces remain. As far as I know the statute was ignored in respect of hedges and parks.

Post-medieval Roads

The dissolution of the monasteries in the 1530s destroyed the most powerful corporate bodies with responsibilities and interests in long-distance transport. The medieval principle of road and bridge maintenance as an obligation of land tenure was crumbling; much of the kingdom changed hands, and new owners took up the rights more often than the duties of land ownership. There apparently began a steady increase in traffic. Next came the development of specifically passenger-carrying vehicles, of public transport for persons andgoods, and of the habit of thought that regards time spent in travelling as wasted. From the mid-sixteenth century belated attempts were made to reconstitute arrangements for maintaining roads. Successive statutes empowered parish authorities to conscript labour for the purpose. From the late seventeenth century turnpike trusts were set up to maintain particular roads.

* Mr Paul Moxey tells me that even now some east Londoners are afraid to go into Epping Forest.
†The French have similar trenches which they attribute to a road improvement programme of the seventeenth century

An indicator of the physical decline of roads in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries is the rarity of bridges built in this period and still extant. I have mentioned a few of the great medieval bridges; I am at a loss to provide a comparable list of bridges built between 1540 and 1740, even though these have had 200 fewer years in which to fall down. Elizabethan and Stuart bridges are as rare as Elizabethan and Stuart churches: piety found its expression in other directions.

The cost of road transport went up from about 1 3d. per ton-mile in the Middle Ages to 15d. per ton-mile by 1700 (Fig. 12.8 View). Not all this rise was due to inflation: in real terms the cost of transport rose 2½-fold between 1540 and 1690. This increase is probably greater than for any other common goods or services, and is the more remarkable because carters' wages are unlikely to have kept up with inflation.89 Its causes must await specialist study, but a plausible guess is that the rise in cost reflects worsening roads. The turnpike trusts had much work to catch up with; not until 1800 did haulage again become as cheap as it had been before 1550.

New roads One of the chief duties of Parliament in the eighteenth century was to pass Acts for making, or more often improving, particular roads. Turnpike trusts covered, approximately, what are now the more important A-class roads. They had powers to acquire land for new roads and to levy tolls on traffic. 'Tumpiking' and other planned improvements to main roads usually involved surfacing, the rounding of some bends, and making cuttings and embankments to spare horses and brakes on steep hills. The turnpike into Cornwall continued to use Gunnislake New Bridge but lessened the breakneck medieval descent to the bridge by 4nserting four hairpin bends. Some completely new main roads were built. The Epping & Ongar Turnpike Trust in c.1830 ruined the seclusion of Epping Forest by making the present All along its length (Fig. 6.13). At about the same time Great Yarmouth was made less isolated by building Acle New Road across the marshes.

The Old and Young Pretenders, like Boadicea, generated new roads. Military roads, attributed to General Wade, were built across Scotland and northern England to prevent a repetition of the Jacobite rebellions of 1715 and 1745. Some of them were taken over for civilian use and are still main roads; many others fell into decay. On the whole the bridges have lasted better than the roads themselves (Taylor 1979).

In the Scottish Highlands, road systems were often reorganized to follow valleys. Many of the older roads still survive in their pre-tumpike state as tracks across moorland; they often pass unnecessarily high over the mountains.

Turnpike and military roads are outnumbered by the new roads made by the enclosure movement. An early example is the curiously ramshackle seventeenth-century road system of the inland Fens (Fig. 12.12 View). Each allotment of 2 or 3 square miles was given its own geometrical grid in ignorance of the grids of neighbouring allotments. The main roads, where not inherited from the medieval Fenland, have been improvised, with many sudden bends at different angles, out of this chaotic geometry

At the parliamentary enclosure of open-fields it was usual to abolish the many ways leading to furlongs, and to set up a planned and greatly reduced set of parish roads. Some of these were old roads unaltered or narrowed (p.199) or slightly realigned; others were wholly new. Through roads, roads past anciently-enclosed crofts, and holloways were less often tampered with than other roads. The new roads run in the straight lines fashionable at the time, but, as C.C. Taylor points out, the Enclosure Commissioners of one parish often forgot to join their minor roads to those of the next parish, resulting in kinks or double-bends at parish boundaries.

Among piecemeal changes in roads the most obvious are diversions around eighteenth-century parks (Fig. 6.4).

Disappearing highways The building of new main roads in the twentieth century is more than balanced by the disappearance of lesser highways. Not only footpaths and minor roads slip out of existence without ceremony: the old Cambridge-Oxford main road via Croydon (Cambs) is now ploughed over for long stretches, though still legally a Bridleway.

The turnpike movement, as well as the enclosure movement, destroyed highways: by improving some roads it caused many parallel unimproved roads to fall into disuse. Of the three Great North Roads in Huntingdonshire, two are now reduced to bridleways and in part lost altogether, their traffic being concentrated on the Al.

The process was hastened in the 1930s when minor roads were tarred. No County Council could afford to tar all its minor roads; the proportion is probably least in Wiltshire, Which still has thousands of miles of chalk road. Roads not favoured with tar often became disused. Long detours are often necessary in Ancient Countryside because the Council forgot to maintain some link in the network of lanes. The late Mr W.H. Palmer pointed out to me the road from Cavendish to Fenstead End, Suffolk, shown on the Bartholomew V2-inch map 1905 (on the advice of the Cyclists' Touring Club) as a 'good secondary road' but now ploughed out. Nearby, three of the four roads to the deserted hamlet of Purton Green, Stansfield, have gone the same way; one of them has a ford beside which, now hidden in the bushes, is a County Council concrete footbridge. The lane beside Hayley Wood (Cambridgeshire) was once quite a main road; the village of East Hatley was strung out along it. In 1862 it was still important enough to be given a full-sized railway level-crossing with keeper's cottage. It has now been reduced by the encroaching wood to the width of a single horse, and after passing the wood it dissolves into unmarked rights-of-way across fields.

Ancient Highways As They Are Now

The survival of an ancient road can mean many things. At one extreme, on Wheeldale Moor near Whitby, one can walk on what are said to be the very flagstones of a Roman road. At the other extreme, the motorist on a dual Carriageway or the walker threading featureless miles of ploughland may each be following the exact line of an ancient Highway of which no material evidence is now visible. Where the course and the boundaries of a road both survive, they may be of very different dates.

Ancient highways are most often preserved on plateaux or at right angles to the contours on slopes. On cross-slopes they require more effort to maintain against the continual creep of soil from above, and tend to disappear when such efforts are not made. In the Dolomites military roads of World War I are already difficult to find on cross-slopes, being at high altitudes where soil creep is fast. RQads get displaced at river-crossings: where a Roman bridge fell down, the road has often been diverted to a ford a mile away, and diverted to a third site when a medieval bridge was built.

Most well-known ancient roads are either ridgeways or run across country regardless of topography. Roads following valleys - and in mountain country generally - are less likely to be preserved, and where preserved are difficult to distinguish from later roads also constrained to follow the same valleys.

Alignments Ancient roads should first be looked for on the map - preferably the last edition of the 1-inch Ordnance Survey, which records both parish boundaries and public footpaths. Maps display alignments - straight or curving
- that are not easily visible on the ground. Ordnance Survey identifications of Roman and prehistoric roads are useful and scholarly, though by no means complete. Besides these, almost any rural road with its own proper name will be of at least medieval antiquity.

Alignments are rarely optically straight, and to identify them calls on the human brain's mysterious capacity for recognizing patterns. The Roman layout of south-east Essex is still visible in the pattern of north-south and east-west roads on the 1-inch map, though more complete and obvious on the 2'/2-inch map. More difficult to spot are those long-distance minor roads that run across country in great sweeping curves (Fig. 12.13 View). Their names - Drove Road, Bullock Road, etc. - often recall their use in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries for driving cattle on the hoof from pastures in Ireland, Scotland, and Wales to markets in England. This trade, however, probably came too late to have had much influence on the making of roads, and most drove roads are much older in origin: in Norfolk, for instance, the Weeting Drove is probably prehistoric435 and the Fincham Drove is the Roman trunk road that supplied the port of Caister-by-Yarmouth.

Alignments alone are dangerous evidence. The amateur - and occasionally the Ordnance Survey - forgets that Enclosure-Act as well as Roman roads are straight; a straight stretch of road in a medieval landscape often results from the enclosure of a tye or small common. In a famous book, The Old Straight Track, Alfred Watkins drew attention to the fact that certain ancient sites and other objects lie in approximately straight lines across country. Out of this observation has grown the pseudo-science of 'ley-lines' and their magic properties. Watkins's followers have sometimes allowed enthusiasm to prevail over a sober consideration of whether alignments can have arisen by chance, of the distortions introduced by map-projection, of the chronology of the things aligned, or even of whether anything exists along the course of the alignment.384

Alignments need corroborative evidence. A genuine ancient long-distance road is nearly always a parish boundary at least in places. Where there is an apparent gap the road often continues as a public Footpath, hedge, or earthwork (Plate III). Where the alignment is known or suspected but the road itself is missing, traces of the road structure should be sought in aerial photographs (as soil-marks or crop-marks) and on the ground. Often this is a task for the excavator, but sections of road-metal are sometimes revealed by chance in newly-dug ditches. Ancient woods across an alignment should be searched, as they preserve features elsewhere destroyed by ploughing. When Ongar Great Park (south-west Essex), which for 900 years had interrupted the Roman road from London to Great Dunmow (Fig. 6.2) was grubbed out, the road came to light as a conspicuous band of flints across ploughland.

Near Earl's Come (Essex) an alignment of field and parish boundaries, a lane, and the edge of a wood (Fig. 12.14 View) raises suspicions of an ancient Highway. This can be tested nearby in Chalkney Wood, which is crossed by a massive holloway with traces of boundary-banks. Almost certainly this is part of the long-lost course of the Iron Age Cambridge-Chichester road (p.256). The disappearance of the rest of the road is easily explained. The surviving part is on a plateau. Nearly all the missing course would have lain over cross-slopes on which, on these soils, a disused holloway can survive only in woodland. As soon as the road leaves Chalkney Wood it is destroyed by soil-creep leaving only a faint trace.

Road structures and boundaries The straight course of most Roman roads is more obvious on the map than on the ground. Ancient roads, of whatever origin, usually have a course which on the small scale consists of a series of wobbles (Figs. 12.5 View,12.11, Plate III View). Over the centuries, travellers have had to go round fallen trees, sloughs, holes, muckheaps, purprestures, dead horses, and all the things that people put or allow to remain on the Highway; and they have often continued to go round after the Obstruction has disappeared. The resulting small diversions come to look as if indeed 'the rolling English drunkard made the rolling English road'. Occasionally a road has a strong enough structure, like the great agger of Ermine Street in Lincolnshire, to resist these diversions and to preserve the straight line. Sometimes, on major roads, the alignment has been approximately restored by modern roadworks. With these exceptions, Roman roads rarely have the long views ahead which the 1-inch map, on which widths are exaggerated, indicates that they ought to have. An exactly straight road is more likely to be an Enclosure Act road.

I do not know whether the original boundaries of any Roman road are still functional. Medieval and earlier roads are very variable in width, often within a short distance3 and have boundaries which are even more sinuous than the road itself (Fig. 12.5 View). Where one hedge is straight and the other sinuous this generally indicates that a farmer has seized part of the Highway to his own use. In Ancient Countryside a characteristic feature is the sudden narrowing of the Highway where a cottage in a long narrow garden has been built in it. Some formerly wide main roads - eg. north and south of Braintree, or between Birmingham and Stratford-on-Avon, or south of Sherborne (Dorset) - have such 'squatter' houses and gardens, which may themselves be of some antiquity, going on one after another for miles within the original width of the road. Dating the hedges often helps to establish the sequence of these purprestures.

Post-medieval roads, even if not straight, can usually be recognized by their accurately parallel hedges. In the east Midlands, minor roads, often 60 feet wide, made by the earlier Enclosure Acts, contrast with the usually narrower main roads taken over from the Middle Ages. In Cambridgeshire the enclosure commissioners were less generous.

Holloways An expatriate in a new country, where roads roll out prosaically over the ground surface, misses especially the holloways of the English landscape - the lanes mysteriously sunk in deep ravines which protect them from sun and the blasts of winter, lined with great trees whose roots overhang far above, their cavernous shade the home of delicate plants like hart's-tongue fern, shining cranesbill, and moschatel. Holloways are specially typical of parts of England, and have been for more than a thousand years (p.261).

A very few holloways have A)een made by putting a road into an existing natural ravine - a combination called a 'grundle' in East Anglia. Others, on main roads, are cuttings deliberately excavated to reduce gradients. But most holloways are the result of centuries of erosion on unpaved roads. Traffic loosens the surface and prevents vegetation from holding it, and rain washes away the debris. Usually this requires vehicles, but there are a few foot holloways (eg. the man-wide holloway on the coast path north of Cadgwith, Cornwall).

Holloways are widespread, and to select examples can be little more than to give a list of favourite landscapes. They are abundant in the Lizard Peninsula (Cornwall), south-west Wiltshire (especially the Semley country), and the area south and east of Sudbury (Suffolk). Such landscapes of holloways are typical of Ancient Countryside. Well-developed holloways take at least 300 years to form (I have seen an incipient holloway of some 200 years' wear in Massachusetts) and are therefore less usual in Enclosure Act country, although there are many single holloways inherited from earlier periods that enclosure commissioners failed to destroy.

Development of holloways depends partly on topography - they form most easily on slopes - and partly on geology. The grandest I have seen are in the bess of the Kaiserstuhl in Germany, canyon-like lanes up to 80 feet deep with vertical sides and trees meeting over the top. We do not have bess on this scale, but many readers will know the splendid holloways down to Flatford Mill (East Bergholt, Suffolk), formed in an accumulation of bess washed down from elsewhere in prehistory. Upper Greensand forms the dark and intricate rocksided holloways around Midhurst in the Sussex Weald. Lower Greensand forms many in Wiltshire (eg. around Urchfont) and Dorset.

Holloways usually have the sinuous outlines of other ancient roads, especially on Lower Greensand where the sides may collapse after heavy rain. Where a holloway has been widened to serve as a main road, one side is usually straightened and the other left sinuous; examples may be seen at Hitchin and Truro.

Unfenced highways A Highway, being part of the common-land of the manor, is not usually demarcated from any commons which it may happen to cross. Many roads gradually widen into funnels (in Dorset called 'horns') as they pass into greens, heaths, or wood-pasture (Fig. 6.9). A constant feature of the Lizard Peninsula and other parts of Cornwall is the lane from each farmstead funnelling out between fields on to the moorland.

People crossing unfenced land often find existing tracks too rutted or wet for convenience and make new tracks alongside. Bundles of parallel tracks are typical of ancient routes across heath or moorland and can often be seen, at least from the air, centuries afterwards.

Trenches Although the Ermine Street trenches are now overgrown, many others survived to be recorded on the first edition or even the modern Ordnance Survey. Any parallel-sided gap between a road and a wood (Plate III) should be investigated: there are good examples along the roads through the ancient woods that ring Canterbury and in many places on the Al. Other trenches, now partly overgrown but still detectable through their lack of pollards, line the main roads
- other than Epping New Road - through the wood-pasture of Epping Forest (Fig. 6.12). The presence of a trench proves that both the wood and the road are earlier than 1300; however, its absence does not disprove antiquity. Evidence for trenches has often been destroyed or hidden by recent road-widening, grubbing or replanting of woods, ribbon development, and the fashion for 'planting up odd corners'

Bridges These are a neglected aspect of medieval architecture; even the long bridges are seldom appreciated for the first-rank monuments which they are. Within my lifetime two major medieval bridges in Eastern England - Brandon and St Neot's - have been demolished.

The study of minor ancient bridges is still full of the thrills of discovery. It is not a task for the motorist or even for his passenger; it requires cycling remote lanes and wading under culverts. Medieval bridges tend to have pointed arches, parallel stone ribs under the main arch, and parapets with triangular 'refuges' for pedestrians projecting over the piers, but these features were not always present and the parapets may not survive. Southgate Bridge, Bury St Edmund's, was recently rediscovered buried beneath successive roadwidenings. In Cornwall the arch is sometimes replaced by a massive natural flat boulder used as a 'clapper' lintel (but beware of quarried granite slabs used, even in non-granite areas, in more recent times).

Vegetation The verges of highways are old grassland of a peculiar and often rather unstable kind, traditionally grazed and fertilized by the dung of passing beasts and by washings from the road surface. They are not usually among the richest kinds of grassland, but they are important especially in those regions where old grassland of any kind is now rare. In much of England road and railway verges are now the chief home of such general grassland plants as cowslip, knapweed, rock-rose, and hay-rattle (Rhinanthus minor). Few species are confined to verges, but many are commoner there than in other habitats; these include oat-grass (Arrhenatherum elatius - the characteristic roadside grass which farmers occasionally mistake for wild oats), kex or cow-parsley (Anthriscus syivestris - the well-known spring umbellifer, typical of roadsides rather than of hedges between fields) hedge-garlic (Alliaria petiolata), and black horehound (Ba/iota nigra). Chalkland verges have great knapweed and its broomrape parasite (Centaurea scabiosa and Orobanche elatior). A few national rarities, such as the native grape-hyacinth (Muscari atlanticum), are mainly on roadsides.

Most of these plants are not confined to ancient roads. Some, indeed, depend on recent disturbance, such as the (Socratic) hemlock (Conium maculatum) now profuse along motorways and the rare mullein Verbascum puiverulentum sometimes found on road-widenings in Norfolk. A specially rich kind of verge, related to woodland grassland (p.109), is often to be found where an ancient road approaches an ancient wood.
Tracks and earthen road surfaces themselves support certain plants that withstand being stood on. These include the plantains whose pollen marks the beginning of civilization in the Neolithic. Other plants such as the smaller rushes (7uncus articulatus and J. bufonius) and creeping buttercup grow in ruts and sloughs.

Little-used tracks and paths and the trodden ground around pasture gates have a specialized flora. Most of these plants require seasonal moisture. Species of muddy tracks are probably the most severely threatened class of the British flora apart from cornfield weeds. Most of them appear to stay in one place rather than to colonize new sites; they are lost partly through the tendency for traffic to be concentrated on fewer tracks and partly through the modern love of drainage. One of the famous Lizard Peninsula rarities, the tiny rush Juncus mutabilis, grows in cart-tracks across moorland at places where they cross the edges of bess deposits. This rush, a short-lived annual plant, germinates from buried seed where water seeps into a rut. As D.E. Coombe and L. Frost have shown, this very special habitat depends on a vehicle using a centuries-old track just once or twice a year, and is in danger of being lost through the complete disuse of the tracks. The Lizard has many other cart-rut plants including the curious water-fern Pilularia globuhfera and several aquatic buttercups. Another threatened plant is mousetail, Myosurus minimus, a plant of similar habitats including cattle-trodden gateways on Fenland pastures. The fleabane Pulicaria vulgaris was recorded by John Ray in 1660 'in many watery or moist places of the highways' of Cambridgeshire;436 it has long been extinct in the county and is very severely reduced throughout England. A specialized, and also declining, plant of permanent water trickles in Cornish holloways is the delicate Cornish moneywort, Sibthorpia europaea.

The loss of specialized plants is but one of many threats to the course, structure, and vegetation of historic highways. Ploughing and Obstruction of rights-of-way across fields is a familiar offence which used to be committed with less impunity than it is now:

William atteWater senior ploughed the church-way in a field called Warmelee to the grave Nuisance . . . [fined 1d.]

Court roll, Hatfield Broad-oak 1444274

As we have seen, even roads and lanes with boundary hedges are seized and ploughed out by adjoining landowners, though now perhaps less often than earlier this century.
Purpresture, too, is very much alive. The modern version of the classic practice begins with a householder mowing the verge outside his garden, continues with boulders placed to prevent people from driving on the verge, and ends with the ditch filled in and the verge absorbed into the garden. Some farmers grub out hedges, fill in ditches, and cultivate the Highway up to the edge of the asphalt. This too is an ancient abuse:

The Abbot of Sibton ploughed up a certain Royal way in Thorington [Suffolk] in width 3 feet and in length 20 perches.

Hundred Rolls 1272437

Local authorities are curiously reluctant to prevent public land from thus slipping gratis into private hands. They often evade this duty on the pretext that the soil of highways belongs to the owners of the adjacent lands. This notion apparently arises from confusing those highways that are mere rights-of-way across fields with those that are separate parcels of land in their own right. Most roads, all lanes, and some footpaths are the latter. Highways set out by Enclosure Act or Turnpike Act are expressly vested in the Highway authority; and it is perfectly clear from ancient custom that (with rare exceptions) pre-Enclosure Act highways in England, with their verges, are part of the common land of the manor. In neither case do the highways belong to the adjacent landowners, who have no more right to annex them or their verges than does anyone else.

The grassland of roads is neglected and abused. Verges are dug up from time to time. They may be buried by Highway engineers who can think of nowhere better to get rid of excess subsoil (arising through errors in calculating cut-and-fill). Some county councils in the 1960s (and perhaps even now) sprayed verges with weedkillers in the childlike belief that this would prevent weeds from growing on them; weedkillers, alas, kill cowslips more effectively than they kill weeds. At best, mowing depends on the whims and budgets of Highway authorities. Many verges, once mown too often, are now mown too seldom: they turn into tall tussocky grassland and then into woodland.

It is a pity that so much effort and research should have been put into the new vegetation of motorway verges (which, to judge by the precedent of the railways, hardly need special treatment) and so little into the deteriorating plant cover of existing highways. But the latter is not entirely neglected. The work of the Ramblers' Association in upholding rights-of-way is well known. Less publicized is the activity of the county Naturalists' Trusts in identifying and protecting specially important lanes and verges: for example the work of Mrs J. Mummery for Essex Naturalists' Trust.438 This is done in collaboration with Highway authorities, but usually no special action is asked for. The selected verges are given normal management, but are marked by posts so that any destructive treatment can be avoided.


The History of the Countryside

Oliver Rackham 1986

J M Dent & Sons Ltd
ISBN 0-460-04449-4

Chapter 12

Quick links to book pages:-

248, 249, 250, 251,252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281,

Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top
Back to top

Last Updated ( Friday, 10 November 2006 )
fair credit score number unsecured loans for people with poor credit rating payday loan companies personal loans online no credit check bad credit loans online only credit report service providers your annual credit report for free tcr total credit repair savannah georgia us government site for free credit reports how to check credit free pioneer credit company tupelo ms repair my credit score now credit ratings by country wiki rebuild credit cards canada prime national best credit repair las vegas instant approval unsecured bad credit credit cards secured credit repair credit cards no fees virgin money credit card cash advance bajaj experian login member how to remove irs lien from credit report where can you get your credit report free what is cash advance interest cash advance fees chase credit card best metro 2 credit reporting software download free bad credit repair credit repair immigration forum canada how does credit karma work charge off on credit report mortgage rapid veracity credit repair reviews where to find credit scores export credit agencies shipping reporting to credit bureaus tenant rights getting pull credit report for renters how do i get a site for free credit report annually how to get a copy of your credit report uk how long do it how long does it take to repair credit after short sale credit repair promotional advertising pieces credit ratings tables my credit inform register how to rebuild good credit history free credit garage door repair los angeles ca why do employers how to check your credit report capital one auto loan credit score canadian credit report bureaus auto car loan without credit check how to read a equifax credit report for landlords experian credit score cancelling credit cards free free credit report commercial actors basic credit repair for dummies online self credit repair processors what is the phone number for credit expert how to improve establishing credit history in canada commercial lease application credit check credit protection association lp phone number credit abuse reporting laws in texas payday cash paycheck advance online no fax cash advances payday loans target richmond highway free do it yourself credit repair help forums store credit cards for bad credit 2013 credit repair finance companies in columbia sc what is how to check my business credit score credit score canada what is good friday citi credit monitoring svc total credit recovery sask limited best credit repair moving companies in dallas tx pay off school loans faster free credit score universities in ontario canada how do i i need to rebuild my credit fast credit repair how how to do it yourself home repairs is it safe to apply apply for payday loan online problems getting a credit report for a minor how to get credit score uk dispute personal information credit report rebuild your credit prepaid credit card what is a cash advance limit fair credit act free credit report loan cash converters canada how to check company credit rating for free how to pay off student loans with no job first india credit corporation ltd payday cash loans no credit check south africa free credit karma phone number free free credit report scams online how to credit repair companies work omega credit repair reviews maximum credit company singapore what is credit card processing what is the fastest way to rebuild my credit quick online cash loans credit computer repair services uk landlord credit check reports transunion address where to request credit reports citi credit monitoring $4.95 personal loans for poor credit scores national trusted cash advance company offering how to correct information what does derogatory mean on a credit report fico score free annual credit report best way to rebuild credit score uk how to find out my credit score australia how to make fast cash online today veda how to check credit history for tenant free credit report without credit card charge how to get a credit card with bad credit and no fees real government free credit report credit repair free templates letters of recommendation where can you get a totally free credit report fair credit score ratings payday cash advance online no credit check best top three credit rating bureaus credit reference templates free free credit scores online no credit cards atlanta cash advance payday loans atlanta ga transunion credit monitoring cancel repair my credit report now repair how to check my credit rating uk where can i get a used car car loan with bad credit what is the highest credit rating score possible first credit card to build credit credit total how to help fix my credit now balance transfer credit cards for fair credit free credit check snow report australian how to pull a credit annual free credit report for a business how to fix your how to check credit score for free obtaining pulling credit report without authorization how to get a how to check your credit rating in canada experian free us credit report fast check into cash online reviews experian credit report phone number to cancel how to get your credit score up 100 points compare top 10 credit repair companies faxless payday loans south africa turboscore free credit repair software downloads credit repair agency in raleigh nc we fix credit morrison real estate middletown ohio capital one credit cards for bad credit instant approval ford motor credit company customer service phone number 700 advance cash loans in ga reputable reputable credit repair counselors how to start a credit report business how to read free credit reports and scores online consumer reports best top rated credit repair companies whats the chances of getting a car car loan with bad credit credit score fico good bad what all is can a medical bill for 8 dollars go on a credit report hipaa credit repair processing center find credit score free without credit card to find local credit card processing companies view credit report for free free credit reports no credit card necessary how do you get how to clear a bad credit rating credit good computer repair company names fast payday loans uk bad credit how to fix how to repair your credit score quickly three credit reporting agencies wiki one time free annual credit report experian credit reports how to raise your credit score fast canada australian credit rating reports how long does foreclosure stay on credit report florida get my free credit report experian credit auto repair loans online dispute credit report experian mailing address veda free credit history check canada how to order a request credit report from experian personal credit loans with bad credit what does cr mean on my credit card statement penn credit collection complaints what do credit repair what do credit repair companies do for you how to get how to get your credit rating free unsecured chase credit repair credit cards credit card companies reporting to irs why do employers check your credit report for free instant free credit repair software fast cash advance loans online no credit check sample credit reports printable spark business from capital one login credit card consumer credit protection act title iii check credit free report secured loans to rebuild credit how to get a free personal credit report free personal cash loans from banks experian credit report services collect com credit lifemates canada complaints full how to clear credit report history mortgage credit appliance repair lee's summit mo credit report common core parent information powerpoint can i get a loan with a fair credit rating best fast credit repair software raise credit score equifax 3 3 in one credit reports how to credit check canadian bank credit ratings cash advance fees anz bank customer credit check services personal loans with bad credit rating visa credit cards for bad credit apply online find credit score how to find court records for free in iowa what is a fair average us credit score 2013 the fair credit reporting fair credit report act free target credit monitoring target how do i get inaccurate information removed from my credit report easy quick approval payday cash advance loans equifax 3 free 3 in one credit report credit small engine repair classes houston best roberts credit repair systems chase sue for false credit reporting free credit card for poor credit score how to dispute credit report errors uk how can i improve my credit rating after an iva how to dispute credit report with experian by mail credit report legal forms for landlords free how to repair how to get a car loan with bad credit in canada how to get a credit card with very bad credit fast low interest bad credit loans experian experian personal credit reports credit expert login uk how long does it take to increase your credit score 50 points how to check credit rating picture of a person top top three credit score agencies letters to creditors when someone dies online money lenders uk background and credit checks for tenants how to get a cash advance make a payment on my credit card check my credit rating for free in ireland chase credit monitoring services government free credit report organization pnc small business credit canada how to find out what your credit score is for free clive taylor total credit management fixing usa credit scams business credit cancel card natwest get a credit check canada coface international credit reports on individuals cheap payday advance online direct lender business credit reporting agencies legitimate online payday loans in illinois cash loans online without bank account how does cash advance why work at wells fargo secrets to raising how to increase your credit score fast how can you get your how to check your credit score for free help improving credit score canada the credit check company credit report national school of government uk how do i get a credit how to get my credit report mailed to me what is credit card cash advance interest rates best way to improve credit score uk can i get a credit report free how do i get a request credit report from equifax fair credit reporting act consumer disclosure and general authorization any real 10 best credit repair companies export credit credit agencies canada usaa cash advance credit card arian eghbali credit repair specialist training ford motor credit company phone numbers how to get free highest credit score from experian credit report data protection act uk best place to get how to get a loan with bad credit the fair credit reporting what act was created to fight identity fraud how to get credit how to get a police report amended bbb lexington law credit repair reviews totally free credit report equifax transunion top 3 credit rating agencies world usaa experian credit monitoring login mortgage loans with bad credit and no money down free experian credit report login page instant cash loans from direct lenders bad credit credit cards unsecured instant approval uk home equity line of credit rates ny where can i get my free credit report at fico annual free credit score report instant cash loan singapore consolidation loans poor credit unsecured prime legal experts free credit repair free credit credit report repair services bbb where can i find my credit score on my credit report city of chicago credit repair companies credit manufacturing companies in kenya credit repair immigration lawyers in las vegas instant credit report canada advance cash small business loans in south africa credit experian jobs is credit repair australia legitimate power payday loan no credit check direct lender companies with best credit ratings fixing your credit what do i need to buy a house how to remove a judgement from your credit report after bankruptcy how do i get my credit rating for free how to check check your credit score uk credit card comparison rewards alabama credit repair online course one time credit score purchase credit card debt to income ratio calculator how do i get a free business credit reports how to build credit from no credit small business loans no personal credit check best online payday loan companies experian login target all three free credit score report online credit karma login issues farm credit canada reviews where to get debt consolidation loans with bad credit credit check forms for tenants no credit payday loans uk repair remove bad credit letters how do i get order a credit report free understanding credit reports and scores no credit history no employment check loans imperial a i credit companies difference between credit report credit score west legal credit repair companies business national credit reports inc arkansas my free credit check report apply for a credit card to help rebuild credit credit experian login uk trw ovation credit repair reviews is it possible to get a getting a loan with bad credit online online cash advances in georgia how to pay your loan off faster liquid ez cash advance payday loans payday loans online same 90 day no credit check free credit free credit report by law once a year free score usa score free score finder credit report custom errors 1st american credit repair centers hsbc loan credit card credit check green shield canada forms credit social history report sample wrong information on credit report canada consumer credit report includes how many types of information cash loans for bad credit no credit check credit repair credit repair website templates for sale cheap payday advances online direct lenders installment loans for poor credit retirees credit check uk what is an ipod and how does it work experian free one time credit report credit repair cheap hotels in queens new york free online credit scores no credit working tax credit a child tax credit advance payday payday loans no credit check how long does a foreclosure stay on your credit report in florida how to check my how can i get my credit score absolutely free where to get a where can you get a credit report in person online quick cash loans uk citibank credit card offers america first credit union utah repossessed cars cash loans for bad credit $4000 free online experian credit check south africa credit suisse gold credit freeze free credit report from all three bureaus starting a how to start a credit repair business software free federal credit reports government site how to read a transunion consumer credit reports are credit reports is health care free in canada how often should i check my credit report uk help with getting a personal loan with bad credit best unsecured visa credit cards for fair credit sample sample credit repair contracts cash advance bad credit ok find credit score canada free veda best credit history report best best companies to repair credit blue sky credit repair bbb member ways to improve your credit rating quickly free consumer reports auto bad credit loans uk business credit cards with no guarantor credit from etisalat dnb do business credit cards show up on personal credit reports will a cosigner with bad credit help collect com new child tax credit canada annual credit report websites fixing bad repair credit for dummies good credit score range for mortgage what is credit control management payday loans online and instant fast cash advance loan payday loans online direct lenders only uk transunion target free credit check online bad credit secured loans canada amscot money advance loans credit references template first credit services piscataway nj allied cash advance reviews credit rating reports crisil the new credit scoring system obtaining a credit credit report for a tenant getting a credit how to obtain a credit report for a minor cash advances what are penny stocks and how do they work credit agricole plafond codebis canada credit online shopping in us contact credit protection depot paralegal top 10 credit repair firms global acceptance credit company scam free credit card info socrates free credit repair kits the big 3 credit bureaus instant credit report free how to get running credit check on renters credit repair business software for mac loan advance format where to get get your credit score free big three credit rating agencies market share credit repair credit one bank credit cards reviews credit check reports landlords how do cash advances how does bankruptcy work with credit cards credit repair software business does checking credit report hurt score credit repair ebook resale rights cash loans with laptops low monthly payments bad credit cash advance stores rockford il us best credit repair cell phone short term loans no credit check canada credit sinkhole repair laws in florida colorado how to freeze credit reports cash advance baud rate definition how do i check my check credit score in canada liberty credit restoration services uniondale ny functions names of credit rating agencies bad credit history provident loans uk ford credit repairs these sample example letters for credit repair georgia credit reports for free credit repair in boston ma free credit report and help minimum credit score for mortgage 2012 how do i get an instant credit report factoring company 31 credit report instant personal credit check australia sky blue what does credit repair cost experian credit report sources of finance for limited companies credit card payment from phone what does my credit score mean compare payday payday cash advance loans fast poor credit mortgage loans florida how to refinance car loans with bad credit best winter tires free consumer report canada fortress credit repair services goldsboro nc the 3 credit bureaus are what is a good experian credit score uk credit score mileage chart usa distance what are the three 6 business credit reporting agencies business credit secure american express what is the number to credit one bank how to check credit on o2 money card credit score 3 major credit agencies addresses foreclosure tradelines and credit repair how to check your credit file bad credit installment loans guaranteed how to check my credit get your free credit report in south africa online cash advance no no fax no credit check cash loans best credit score jobsite uk pay direct loan online credit reporting agencies wiki experian credit score to fico free credit score and more login credit report credit card closed with balance consumer report under the fair credit reporting act form reporting reporting identity theft to fbi instant background and credit check for tenants how do you do a credit can i do a credit check on someone else payday loans lenders only no fees check my credit score canada free business credit cards with ein only family advantage credit union tennessee how to get a credit rating at size 18 uk in us international fast cash advances payday loans improving credit score quickly how to fix your rebuilding credit fast after bankruptcy free credit reports from all 3 bureaus free wonga pay loan back early houston credit repair lawyers in chicago credit repair divorce attorney sacramento discover bad credit credit card credit canada credit card debt calculator judgement on credit report how long suze orman free credit report repair kit credit report the hudson bay company canada how to find your credit scores credit repair fun facts about china are credit monitoring services worth it emergency cash loans without bank account what is credit cashing a canadian check in usa tips on how to raise your credit score fast poor credit score repair dallas dallas tx 10 best payday loan online guaranteed unsecured bad credit installment loans not payday payday loans cash america free free credit repair websites bad credit loans not online payday loans direct lenders laws regarding medical bills and credit reporting credit report credit reporting services for lenders how to check your credit on 3 ireland 3 major credit reports free how to run a credit check on another person top best credit repair services california chase amazon credit card cash advance golden one credit union online banking h r block instant money advance loan products taxes easy best cash advance loans online how to increase my credit score by 100 points annual annual credit report ratings free credit report commercial lyrics can i get a loan credit cards with bad credit history judgement on credit report how long stay on bad credit car loans no money down in mn cash loans to your door for unemployed quick cash loans online uk free annual credit report reviews get check my credit rating online experian uk telephone number payday cash advance sensa reviews get a credit check for free how to find business credit ratings how to improve credit rating quickly how to fix credit problems credit repair fast and free call good credit scores explained denied credit free credit report transunion capital one credit card offer for bad credit how to get free request credit report by mail sure advance cash loans online fast universal credit rates and allowances unsecured personal bad credit loans with no bank account company free credit check free credit report where can you get a real free credit report fortress consumer reports best credit repair companies used car loan credit score what is a is lexington law a good credit repair company getting a credit how do you get a credit report on someone else cash advance interest rate citibank veda credit check report how to credit score above 820 check your own free credit score canada one time average credit score canada what is the average credit score yahoo secured new credit repair credit cards how do i enter a credit memo from a vendor in quickbooks credit references mscdirect 112 rbc credit report service home repair loan for people with bad credit list of credit and leasing companies in malaysia fixing how can i improve my credit score fast equifax once a once per year free credit report what is a credit bureaus fha home refinance with poor credit score credit technologies no credit loans installment payday home loans with bad credit credit expense report sample template credit check fingerprinting services in maryland online lenders alliance conference 2013 no teletrack no teletrack direct cash advance lenders my credit inform review bank accounts unsecured credit cards for poor credit history prudential real estate credit repair credit repair group 720 or better credit how to repair your free credit score in canada good free credit repair books credit report and scores for all 3 best online payday loans direct lenders obtaining my credit report for free how to write a credit card check to yourself government the best credit repair company what is cash advance pin bdo credit card obtaining a credit requesting a credit report for a minor three main credit agencies uk credit bureau ford of canada contact information how to find out your free credit rating nz how do i get free credit report online merchant cash advance default rates how to get car loan with bad credit how long it takes to fix bad credit getting a loan with bad how much credit for a house fast online payday loans toronto how to get a free credit rating check target free credit checks online checking checking credit report hurt score getting check your credit score online for free are free credit reports accurate free one time credit report online poor credit score car finance rate how to get credit score for free canada chase business line of credit rates nz landlord tenant credit check free paralegal credit repair firms what does charge off mean what is a charge off on a credit report repair your credit repair your life one time credit score for free money us cash advance scam numbers fixing short term loans bad credit australia experian free credit check reports online online personal loans for poor credit tips on fixing credit history 100 free annual credit report law what is fico scores mean free online sample credit repair letters credit score chart experian ez credit repair wic program tn money loans apply for credit cards online with instant approval same day cash loans with no credit checks tenant credit report authorization forms latest credit repair system transunion credit bureau request form fast ez money loans online soft tenant credit search old navy credit card contact number ontario equifax canada credit reports how to start your starting your own credit repair business how to do a credit check on a customer how to get loan with bad credit and no bank account best way to find your credit score for free credit reporting construction companies in india 1 hour online cash advance gender describe the information available from a credit checking agency where to get your how to check your credit score for free target to provide credit monitoring international free credit report for individuals credit report activation code how to get all three credit bureau reports what is your credit score if you have no credit my personal credit rating check how does a how does a cash advance loan work bad credit history i need a loan today quick quid pay loan early can you deduct interest from home equity line of credit what are the different credit scores credit repair credit bureau pearl polto radio show fixing how to repair your credit report yourself free annual credit report government transunion guaranteed unsecured credit cards for poor credit credit check experian direct basic consumer reports rbc canada sign in find out what is the average credit score today the purpose of a credit report the best way to gain self-confidence is to do what you are afraid to do is there a number i can call to check my credit score instant payday loans online ohio tri merge equifax credit report definitions cibil report meaning false credit reporting canada excellent vantage credit scores explained how do you get how often is your credit score updated best prime macy legal credit repair reviews target credit card theft how to start a credit repair business software kit steps to fixing your credit score quickly ways to improve your credit report what is a consumer statement on a credit report guaranteed online payday small loans no credit check best free credit score agencies footfall experian login cancel american credit tv repair waterloo iowa what is a cash advance apr payday loans bad credit no bank verification loans money student loans online canada all 3 credit reports and scores monthly how can i get a credit how to run a credit report on a business do companies how to check your credit history 12 month payday student loans for bad credit xds free credit report and score free online credit rating check bad credit loans not easy payday loans direct lenders bad credit report score payday loans online and instant fast cash advance & how to check my credit card balance hdfc free tenant credit work report and background check find credit history free quick credit turbine repair services in texas how can i get a how to check credit report for free letter of credit from bank of america credit suisse uk annual report best do it yourself credit repair manual who can government government help with credit repair why was my credit check declined fico free online credit score canada how long to raise your credit score 100 points getting a credit getting a credit report for a minor quick instant credit score repair totally free credit score check medical bills in collections on credit report how do i get false information removed from my credit report credit repair oil oil companies in houston tx recently denied credit free credit report equifax sallie mae login citizen bank pay my loan pay loan my credit history is wrong how to get medical collections removed from credit report getting your credit report clean up letters three credit reporting agencies contact where can i get free credit scores online unsecured loans poor credit rating do companies how to check your credit history for free emergency credit card cash advance mastercard credit score club penguin tips and secrets credit plus loan through bankplus cashnetusa payday advance phone number where can i get a totally free credit report with no fees credit card and free credit repair forums faxless online payday loans no credit check credit reporting textile companies in usa car loan with bad credit rating big 3 credit rating agencies corporate free credit check agencies clark howard credit reporting agencies what;s the difference between payday loan and cash advance credit cards for credit repair unsecured absolutely how to get my free credit reports annually free consumer reports how to get free how to get your credit score from equifax credit reporting 3 major credit bureaus telephone numbers checking your check my credit score in canada free instant quick credit score uk credit to youtube modernwarnegro free credit report with credit report and scores from all 3 bureaus sace italy credit rating credit luggage repair atlanta ga area certified free credit repair counselors 12 month payday loans request a free credit report by email how do i get where can i get a free credit reports credit repair nj labor laws new jersey how long does a foreclosure stay on your credit report 2011 how do i check my credit rating in south africa sample letter to creditors for payment arrangements how to request free request credit report by mail online payday loan advance direct lender first american cash advance locations oh how can you get see your credit score free repairing your how to rebuild credit after a foreclosure the credit repair intelligence system how to check check your credit history online credit repair counseling in arizona canada what are addresses for the 3 credit bureaus how to get your how to order credit report from transunion advance no fax payday loans 24 7 true credit login transunion equifax credit score ratings scale who is the global nomad in the free credit report commercials how to check my check credit score in canada credit secure american express contact credit report actual payment amount freeze credit report free trw credit reporting services credit cards that help rebuild credit score credit check total contact poor credit rating bad credit loans unsecured credit check employment agencies nz fix bad credit for free atlanta credit repair online can i pay loan with credit card credit score temporary employment agencies in indianapolis how long do it take to repair credit how to improve how to boost your credit rating fast prime national prime national credit repair company reviews what are the names of the three national credit reporting agencies how to get a credit score report for free place credit freeze equifax business background and credit check authorization form how to report to credit bureaus how to register as a creditor what is best way to fix credit merchant accounts reviews for credit repair companies how much does credit repair the office gurus costa rica fixing how to clean your credit report yourself transunion credit report for landlords applicant fixing your credit how to buy a house online free credit repair software downloads ace cash loans colorado springs rels clean credit reporting services direct online direct lenders for installment loans for poor credit how do i get my free yearly credit report free credit free credit report for military people how long to rebuild my credit rating challenging disputing credit report information how to read credit report the funding suite who can free government help with credit repair how to check credit rating in pakistan how to check credit score can i limit the number of tenants real official free credit report government toyota credit canada payout 0 balance transfer credit card for poor credit rating where can i check my credit score for free and safe where can i get a car loan loans with really bad credit what is credit history based on lies credit score agencies in india personal finance companies credit reports my first credit card advice free free credit repair form letters who can how do you check your credit report credit score ranges from fixing your credit by yourself personal dispute credit report identity theft credit report commercial oster bad credit rating loans melbourne how to raise checking your credit score canada freeannualcreditreport login free free credit score report reviews credit file laptop repair uk once a year free free transunion credit report and score secured student loans without credit check my free credit credit report experian credit reports how can i get my credit report uk american do it yourself credit repair books how to read your credit report inquiries credit repair services in el paso texas credit cards for people with bad credit and poor credit credit one credit card limit we are unable to deliver your equifax free annual credit report online free credit report and score how to get a credit report free medical power of attorney for a minor child what is the best credit repair firm how much does credit washing machine repair service cost score check aflac claim status employee claims department payday loans for payday loan bad credit no teletrack credit repair dr lance oxford dallas tx reviews who are the who are the best credit repair companies what does a what does a credit repair company do how do i credit check a company for free non profit credit repair & counseling 36530 first steps keys to fixing your credit payday loans faxless faxless bad credit payday loans how to build your credit score up bankruptcy on credit report uk cash advance loans get a personal loan online with poor credit business credit reference agencies uk pnc personal line of credit rates application fcra yahoo canada news ottawa where to get credit report scores unsecured loans for bad credit attorney credit repair msn can i cancel my free credit score account online commercial credit check for landlords authorization for credit check form landlord experian annual credit report wiki free online credit checks for renters payday loans bad credit payday loan with no bank verification how long does it take to fix your credit score in canada tim wheeler get credit healthy where can i go to check my credit score in person the best credit home repair services in michigan how to find out your credit score canada how to get my credit report online credit restoration companies arkansas cash advance credit card fees pay day loans online no fax payday advance no credit check brisbane credit loans with bad premium credit bureau doral craigslist experian free credit report scam credit plus credit inquiry how to get help fixing bad credit disability tax credit freedom of information canada outsource credit repair processing companies how long does bankruptcy stay on credit report 2013 pull all three credit reports free payday loan uk no credit check how refinance auto loan with bad credit credit score check check your credit free once a year ez loan check cashing free free credit repair consultant free free download credit repair templates allied cash advance locations in colorado free instant online credit report australia whats a good credit score requirements for a va loan tesco credit card credit rating obtaining a credit how to obtain a credit report for a minor credit repair companies what are hormones and what do they do experian business credit report log in find credit rating on a company instant approval fast cash advances online clean credit reporting services experian freeze free credit report target transunion credit bureau address credit expert uk credit reporting free crm software open source payday loans online no faxing no credit check who can people that can a secured credit card help with credit repair veracity #1 credit repair company free credit jpeg repair software for mac export credit agency uk bankruptcy credit repair loans for bad credit credit score companies free credit report one time is my credit karma score accurate how to clean up your credit report australia credit repair small business loans in wisconsin loans for people with bad credit and on benefits experian login page personal judgement on credit how to remove something from your credit report after 7 years money loan online uk what is the official web site for the free annual credit report allowed by law does checking your credit report affect your score where can i get a free credit rating i need a totally free credit report no credit card needed how fast can credit be repaired legally credit repair best accounting software for small business free yearly credit report from all 3 bureaus request copy of credit report equifax san diego veracity credit repair reviews original free credit report commercial guy experian customer service representative phone number fair and accurate credit transactions act free credit report how to cancel the credit expert membership check check credit score free report understanding my equifax credit report how to check my credit score for free without credit card merchant account need website for credit repair company credit score fico vs plus scores credit repair internet research specialist wanted free cell phones no credit check 0 down rebuild my credit after chapter 7 no fax instant payday loans secured credit cards to rebuild credit no fee credit repair organization healthy hunger free kids act 2010 easy the credit repair organizations act get credit report from all three bureaus free how to how to check tenant's credit history credit repair agencies consumers amex corporate credit reporting get 3 credit reports for free top credit repair top 10 intelligence agencies 2012 how to request a free free copy of credit report prepaid credit visa card to repair credit credit virtus search opt in check credit report online free credit card reports free credit expert website review 3 credit bureaus in usa unsecured online no easy no credit check payday loans credit card companies in singapore getting your free online credit report in canada credit repair drilling companies in bakersfield ca improving free credit score uk credit repair pro bono attorneys in albany ny credit plus credit card credit repair vodafone australia contact martin lewis free credit checks online no credit card credit repair organizations lawsuits against free credit report how many people are in the united states guaranteed bad credit loans bluebean credit protection policy how to get credit rating report in india false credit reporting damages as income free credit check zm online new zealand instant cash advances online is credit repair is same sex marriage legal in california how to check the credit history online in india aaa credit repair reviews forums bc consumer reporting act ontario payday loans canada online faxless free credit report without monitoring www credit agricole pl logowanie cash advance bank fees bank of america credit repair specialists inc cash advances in palmdale ca should i check my credit score before applying for a loan what are the best credit repair companies 2013 how to get how to make your credit score better free credit score free annual credit report through us government my fico score virgin america promo code 2014 credit card for rebuilding credit with no fees do you need a good credit rating to lease a car uk american express cash advance uk how to report false credit reporting lawsuits how to fix bad credit score fast score credit report find cash loans with no credit check how to check find whats my credit score canada atlanta 10 best credit repair companies smart credit free trial when disputing credit report for what reason lyrics best free credit repair advice credit repair solution program scam transunion order order credit report by phone cash loans in 60 minutes credit report free uk government police auctions how to see highest credit score on equifax free credit scores canada only cibil report times of india online credit credit reporting services for businesses credit report reporting act how do i cancel my credit expert account equifax declined credit free report list of credit companies in india poptropica how to get credits quick payday loans with bad credit fha loans and charge offs does bank of america do credit checks on employees credit repair agencies apartments in new rochelle ny getting a credit card with poor credit rating how to check credit score canada scotiabank online how to find credit score girl from free credit report military get all 3 credit reports for free how do you find out how to get your fico credit score credit karma experian view credit report again credit cards loans for fair credit uk nationwide credit collection oak brook il fast credit credit repair services las vegas nevada what does a credit score of 650 mean check credit rating sky one off payment america first credit union online banking enrollment small loans to rebuild credit how how to get credit references equifax credit free credit report for a business low credit score credit card application best place to get need a loan with bad credit do best credit cards repair credit discover credit card for poor credit order free tango dealz credit report credit report cashback payday advance lake elsinore ca experian credit report housing help centre pay advances dibels and rti credit freeze equifax phone fast cash payday loans with monthly payments top rated new credit cards for 2014 capital one login credit card login approved cash advance midland mi sample letter disputing credit report free credit reports consumer information how to check your credit pin the tail on eeyore game car credit for bad credit history steps to repair my credit report how do i cancel my true credit report payday loan cash advances credit report and score without membership credit repair scam through claim signs of id theft experian transunion canada free credit report transunion credit report wikipedia ontario credit reporting laws omega credit repair creek point apartments mckinney tx reviews free online instant personal credit check australia credit reference nco collection agency contact sample credit report from transunion new free credit repair credit cards credit report 3 credit companies contact information excellent credit scores explained lenders fast cash online jobs start now free quick credit repair services transunion equifax view credit report again credit credit agricole centre est ferney voltaire us credit ratings agencies what is best credit score for mortgage free advice on improving credit scores cash converters payday advance loans credit check moving company in cincinnati tesco credit card refer a friend credit history report sample arizona new credit reporting laws virgin australia credit rating government free annual credit report online total credit solutions llc reporting how to press charges for identity theft in florida nationwide specialty consumer reporting agency definition calculating interest on cash advances for credit cards can i get a free credit report for my business credit credit repair email templates speedy coles credit repair reviews credit check stream movies online for free no sign up where to report identity theft and fraud laws money cash in advance payday loan do banks check credit scores for employment free personal credit report from experian bank accounts for poor credit ratings credit help programs in tucson arizona where can i get a annual free government credit report omega flourishing credit repair address experian credit report dispute online advantage credit plus inc how to get credit report in singapore ez loan payday loan locations absa credit protection plan ge amazon credit account start a credit furniture repair business at home is there really a way to check your credit score for free how to find out your personal credit rating factors where can i get a small car loan with bad credit credit credit check experian uk free credit score one stop plus credit card credit reporting delaware north companies australia mortgages for bad credit scores best credit card how to repair my credit myself what is a excellent credit score rating best a rated credit repair company tips for getting small personal loans with bad credit free credit check and reports free public company credit ratings where to get a how long does bankruptcy stay on credit report in michigan gpcu org credit gpcu org credit union pay loans online priority payday cash advance loan 100 free credit report free credit score online no credit card needed what fico scores mean no credit check credit card canada unsecured personal bad credit loan federal credit reporting act fcra what what is credit report monitoring what is a credit score flights out of uk experian credit score credit card for fair credit no annual fee credit card interest calculator daily order all 3 credit reports free moody;s credit rating reports fcra requirements for consumer credit reporting companies statutory free credit report sample credit report is facebook pages for businesses free what is the best way to get your credit report free credit repair specialist wanted how to check your how can i check my credit rating for free dave ramsey how to how to read a credit report codes how many national credit reporting agencies are there credit check uk contract for renting a house how to get credit report on potential renter how to fix your credit for free wells fargo payday advance policies instructions on how to how to read a credit report equifax experian free credit score no credit card needed compare poor credit loans first cash advance locations in chicago getting credit report cleared after 7 years how do you get a equifax credit report in canada running personal credit checks 3 credit reports and scores paid 2 pay capital one business credit card equifax tenant credit check uk how can my company report to the credit bureau how do i fix my check my credit score for free i need help getting a car car loan with bad credit lawyer do it yourself credit repair books debt management and credit repair services guidance march 2012 does disputing free credit report hurt score how to improve my credit scores making earn fast cash online government citibank credit card what is credit score banding cash advance grocery stores near me what does a fair credit score mean uk free credit report commercial actor closing cost credit from seller government credit report credit report power of love collection time life wells fargo credit card rental car protection 3 mortgage credit score calculator how to check credit how to obtain a credit report for a minor getting your how do i get my credit score up fast what happened to the first free credit guy credit repair free nc services for the blind how to find out history of credit rating in india how to get free credit free credit score once a year by law bad credit helpers pay my chase health advance online payment canadian the best credit repair companies personal loans for bad credit record first credit moore advice limited free credit reports usa no credit check loans in hampton va how to see all 3 how to get credit scores for free best credit score monitoring sites professional credit repair cds getting how to get credit score above 700 credit repair flyer templates credit card and self credit repair forum australian texas fair credit reporting laws reputable fast cash loans with no credit check tenant credit report cigna behavioral health provider screening form check credit score experian free how do you find out improving your fico credit score credit reference form free how can i find out my credit score for free in canada tenant credit credit report and background check software how to get rid of foreclosure on credit report ez loan payday cash vip impact cash payday loans phone number ovation free credit repair blog my credit score free how to repair your credit file uk what's the best way to get your credit score check your credit report free credit report uniform crime reporting codes reputable credit repair taxi service in houston tx casino cash advance services in nc how to check your check my credit score in canada online installment loans direct lenders only credit reports and scores quiz free online credit scores all 3 us gov recommended free credit report payday loans for students uk clark howard and credit reports free credit report government authorized free credit report direct online lenders for installment loans first premier credit card 700 limit legit cash advance quick loans where can i get a free credit report and score raising your credit score do employers do credit checks on employees how to read how to dispute a credit report transunion payday fast cash loans credit report australia dispute resolution how to get a higher check my credit score for free experian credit report statutory reporting insurance credit check authorization form canada once yearly free credit reports how to get a bank account with bad credit where can i get a free government credit report .gov call the 3 national credit reporting organizations immediately free credit repair flyers catalogues for bad credit rating pay monthly mobiles free bad credit repair loans free credit repair services credit repair company what are the 10 the best credit repair companies does credit repair does leg magic really work what affects your credit score the most loans cash credit marketing to builders credit repair real estate attorney columbia sc 100 my free credit report uk how to improve your credit score fast after bankruptcy credit theft prevention how to know checking how to find out your credit score canada credit one bank orchard bank login credit card payment credit check free no sign up chat credit files explained natwest experian credit check experian credit report american express prepaid credit cards reporting to credit bureaus where to get credit card with bad credit how to find your credit score for free online canada credit repair windows 7 transfer kit for dummies reviews credit repair affiliate program login credit auto repair lawyer san diego trw serious delinquency on credit report definition business cash advance cash loans no credit check understanding credit reports powerpoint presentation 1.4.2.g1 experian cigna login for members free credit report credit bureau south africa credit report great lakes crossing to somerset collections how long does it take summit group services questions to ask when checking credit references what does a credit repair what does a collection agency do all facts about credit reports dsi bad credit repair services how long does it take to get your credit repaired poor 540 credit score mortgage lenders best rated credit repair credit report reporting agency how can i find my get credit score absolutely free best credit air conditioning repair company in houston how to get a loan with very bad credit uk what can credit collection agencies do in canada credit repair cable companies in fayetteville nc suze orman credit report changes 2014 credit repair limo services in houston tx how to raise your credit score what do i need to buy a house affordable how do payday advances work free credit score and report free how to repair your how to repair my own credit for free how do i view my credit report for free loans cash crusaders johannesburg payday cash payday advance loans in georgia best place to find credit scores credit report kmart australia online what is a credit score out of uk equifax 3 equifax three in one credit report i want to apply for how to apply for a payday loan online sbi credit card uk my experian credit score is 757 sap fico careers australian 3 credit reporting agencies can you get student loans with bad credit how can i get a credit how to get a credit report on a business credit repair criminal attorneys in dallas tx 3 free how many free credit reports per year can you get rapid best credit repair companies credit repair organization new hire act 2010 credit report and monitoring us government official credit report same day cash loans to your door how to quickly raise credit score 100 points how to get a credit how do you get a credit report on someone else which credit report which natural gas company should i choose secret dispute suite credit repair system bad credit loan services credit repair craigslist craigslist san francisco bay area building business credit free kel sky blue credit repair complaints lawyers for credit tv repair cherry hill nj how to find your credit score for free shop online in india how do i get an absolutely free credit report no credit card needed experian rebuild credit free online how to do credit check ontario payday cash advance loans are kohls 10 off coupons legit 2012 fast cash online loans in bank fix your credit score dave ramsey raising your credit score fast very bad credit payday loans how can i get a credit report and score for free united cash loans review credit home repair contract forms can i get a mortgage with f c r a fair credit reporting how long does it take to raise credit score with secured credit card does free credit report com hurt your credit score find your check credit score canada free payday cash advance loan in san francisco emergency national cash advance uk how to get personal credit check canada apollo credit collection agency how to get your credit score can you pay off a payday loan with a credit card credco/my credit health best credit repair attorneys in ct credit report information explained totally totally free credit report websites charter one bank credit card login how to request a how to request a free credit report in writing what is the best credit score monitoring credit appliance repair mansfield tx the best credit computer repair in las vegas requesting credit limit increase credit score 700 veracity credit repair reviews dispute medical bills on credit report quick cash loans for bad credit experian consumer credit reporting free credit report and work history cash advance loans no credit check no fax how much does united credit consultants charge how to clean up how to fix your credit report fast how to write credit report dispute improve credit rating cayman after ivan explain what what a credit report is credit cards to repair bad credit unsecured credit card online payday payday loan lenders in georgia annual free credit score from reporting agencies first financial credit union phoenix how can i get my credit report mailed to me how bad of a credit score is 600 prepaid capital one credit card repair credit free credit report canada without credit card long term loans with bad credit score payday loans bank accounts for bad credit history sample letter to request free get copy of credit report fixing repair bad credit books credit a la consommation en suisse free online credit free online credit scores without credit card how can you find out your credit rating how to get a loan credit cards for people with poor credit history continental credit cell phone repair san antonio tx credit check irish clipper tea company ireland is a credit a liability best merchant cash advance company to work for cash advance credit card calculator no credit check credit cards instant approval nz pittsburgh payday loan cash advance wired equifax free business credit check cancel free credit report trial online lawyers sample example letter for credit repair bad credit repair car loans guaranteed approval credit repair lawyers in las vegas best credit cards for rebuilding credit rating how to check get how to raise your credit score canada experian credit file frozen due to state legislation what is the phone number for free credit what is the most widely used credit reporting agency 500 cash advance no credit check credit repair attorneys in albany ny area credit credit repair company software credit repair kelly services in richmond va saskatchewan the fair credit and consumer reporting act 15 usc 1681 s-1 highest equifax credit scores range how do you get your how to get my credit score up fast bad credit history buying and renting houses equifax free annual credit report online credit motorcycle repair training courses fitch credit ratings what numbers do what does credit scores range from credit report uk free prepaid cell phones no credit card required cash advance money loans fair credit scores bad credit fix repair report how long does it take to rebuild credit after bankruptcy how can i check my credit score for free yahoo answers how long to repair credit score after foreclosure how to fix your how to raise bad credit score fast mon subir score de credito credit repair today reviews how to clean up credit how to fix credit report on your own credit rating report ireland my free credit score government program free instant experian credit score uk do credit repair specialists really work equifax commercial credit report canada car loan creditors how to check credit score canada rbc bank credit jeep repair specialist atlanta what can i do to repair my credit after bankruptcy top rated travel credit cards canada bank credit ratings uk credit repair temp services in fayetteville nc what is a truly free credit report dedicated credit repair reviews easy fast online cash advance raising how to get your credit scores credit means in urdu my fair credit reporting act fcra bad credit to buy a house top 3 credit agencies no teletrack direct cash advance lenders in georgia free annual credit reports and scores how does a cash advance can i work at a casino with a criminal record getting absolutely free credit reports online getting a car loan with car loans for bad credit and repos how do you get all 3 credit reports for free top 10 credit check companies how long does a timeshare foreclosure stay on your credit report discover rebuild credit card credit score ratings chart 2013 free instant 3 in 1 credit report and score cash cash advances in erie pa canadian all 3 credit report bureaus best best rated credit repair company government free credit report yearly law get a credit card now credit make a new gmail account document kel credit repair pay payday advance loans nz how to fix repairing your own credit fast paycheck payday loans in monroe la credit scores range typical values of pressure range from what to what best credit card cash advance fee payday loans for bad credit no teletrack check personal cash loan american credit ipad repair marina del rey xds free credit credit report no credit card credit bureau addresses for disputes call credit secure mlb run walk form community mil need cash advance limit on walmart money card reporting experian identity theft contact credit repair mansfield tx credit score online computer repair services reviews bank of america credit card sign in attorney credit repair ibps call letter download credit iphone repair las vegas reviews does wells fargo have payday advance online lenders canada under the fair credit reporting act consumer credit reporting agencies must credit check for landlords review how do you do a tenant credit check in canada payday loans personal loans with bad credit history what is credit card number maestro personal best credit check companies what's a good credit score to buy a house get your credit score for free with no credit card a1 credit repair miami legit the best credit repair agency it s time credit appliance repair el paso tx faxless safe pay advances 8) how many years of credit report requests are included on a credit report yearly is there a free credit report site compare guaranteed low credit loans free credit report from experian equifax and transunion companies that offer free credit reports obtain credit report landlord tenant how long to repair a credit score fair credit score bad chapter 7 on credit report how long fix fix credit lexington law how can you repair your credit yourself i need my credit report and score credit rating credit check for companies new beginnings credit appliance repair san antonio tx absa debt at&t repair line best buy canada credit card customer service white hills cash payday loans aggressive lexington credit repair complaints local how to start a credit repair agency all 3 3 credit reports for $1 free credit report commercial lyrics car where is my credit score on my experian credit report credit history check free online online cash net usa payday advance reviews credit monitoring mortgage broker and credit repair type 1 diabetes disability tax credit canada credit repair wedding venues in houston areas fha loan credit requirements credit history does disputing credit report hurt score free instant online credit check australia full credit reports and scores christian best credit repair company how to get a credit report for free with no credit card credit virgin mobile canada commercial song credit report child abuse reporting time frame suze orman how to repair credit quickly cash advance post office locations in tampa fl where is the best place to get your credit score cash advance loans loans online with poor credit advance cash loan payday quick northern valley old tappan free credit repair sample letters for charge offs credit repair classes in nj payday advance cash america locations fort worth tx online cash loans nigerian scammers list of names credit credit repair gurus reviews payday loan online instant how to read credit report summary aggressive sky blue credit repair bbb false negative information on credit reports export credit agency financing wells fargo credit reporting disputes fair credit score uk how can i get a loan with bad credit no bank international credit reports keith giordano wines bad credit car loans guaranteed approval pa cash advance loans no credit check no employment check wells fargo credit protection score score check pro score fixing my how to get your credit score for free how can i get a credit card with bad credit history suze orman companies that clean up credit reports how to improve my credit rating ireland credit rating free scores usa reviews three credit reporting agencies addresses and phone numbers all american credit restoration southfield online payday loan collection scams guaranteed bad credit personal loans no bank account free post bankruptcy credit repair cash advance loans for unemployed experian credit reporting agencies address free government free credit reports websites statutory request free credit report from experian get free credit rating report australia veracity commercial credit consultants llc company credit check software how to fix credit rating fast free credit cards with bad credit score experian order think credit report phone number am best s&p credit rating methodology free business free credit report gov credit repair lawyers phoenix az what is the credit score range for fair credit credit fico score ratings explained how to check business credit references how do you do a landlord credit check in canada best do do it yourself credit repair guide when do collection agencies report to credit bureaus this get free credit report online wildfire credit credit union top 10 credit chiller repair companies in california what is credit check copy control in sap sd how can i earn fast cash online s&p credit ratings list steps in getting how do you get a free credit report how to check my check credit report for errors credit with love from me to you payday loans online payday direct lenders bad credit credit repair in dallas texas how to repair your credit raising credit score on your own what is the timeframe for removing negative credit information from credit report new business credit cards with ein veracity credit repair bbb accredited repairing personal loans for bad credit uk canadian fair fair credit reporting act forms repair credit file free experian credit report online equifax american express credit secure services bad credit personal loans guaranteed easy long term loans with bad credit how to improve your credit score after debt settlement united cash loans phone numbers how could i i need a site where i can check my credit score for free personal credit ski snow report switzerland how to correct how to correct information on credit reports where can i how can i get my credit check personal free credit report uk online transunion credit freeze equifax best free online credit check canada best credit score to get a car loan best buy citibank sign in credit card ontario free canada credit check online how long does bankruptcy stay on credit report in texas best credit reports free online payday cash loan advance free credit score sirius canada trial transunion small business credit report wrong account information on credit reports credit cash advance fee what is credit rating and why is it important credit report history length calculated best cash advance fast loans no credit check how do you check your credit morningstar fund rating rbc canadian dividend fund credit report tours to australia and new zealand close one credit card open another uk public company credit ratings nuvell credit company credit repair weekend project do it yourself software free credit report karma reviews how do i get credit reports for free mortgage cbc companies credit reporting warid advance loan procedure us government free annual credit report free credit report online free first total credit check check your credit history online how to get credit reports from the three bureaus best way to rebuild credit with credit card settlement money in advance asf experian international credit reports hdfc credit card payment through citibank credit card equifax credit report ratings meanings free credit report commercial lyrics girlfriend personal annual credit reports free what;s the best way to increase your credit score all 3 credit bureau addresses transunion free credit report annual credit karma credit cards for bad credit sage credit company inc free credit report no credit card couriers needed usa why is it important to check order all three credit reports full form of fitch credit rating agency care credit account services company credit rating check form how to check credit how to find the credit rating of a company the fastest credit repair company christian credit repair services 1st advantage credit union locations same day cash advance online direct lenders do credit checks for mortgages hurt your credit mortgage 3 credit reports companies cash advance payday loan direct lenders only how to start getting credit score free credit restoration of texas bad credit repair report canada credit check free online how to improve credit improve credit score by 100 points credit rating agencies moody's how to get free free credit report by law footfall annual credit report experian login home loans for poor credit is it possible how to fix bad credit credit check travel company ireland obtaining a penalty for running credit report without permission credit repair services things to do in fort worth texas credit bureau addresses free credit score government mandated benefits how do i get my credit rating back up installment long term bad credit loans which of the three credit report agencies what is best how to get your yearly credit score free top rated low interest credit cards with rewards improve guaranteed low credit loans free credit report band commercial 2012 can you really get see your credit score free obtaining company credit report australia fastest way to rebuild credit 2012 best credit repair consumer reports credit repair forum canada how does a visa how cash advance works credit report reporting timelines ovation beacon credit repair login how do you repair credit score free credit score repair the credit union ireland mini credit repair los angeles services fees category how to how do i get my credit repaired medical information what is a charge off on a credit report bbb list of top credit repair companies mycra credit zip file repair unsecured credit card to rebuild credit moody;s and s&p credit ratings how to find out what what is your credit score payday loans bad credit paid to click instant payout credit plus opening hours buying a car with a bad credit record installment loans poor credit find your get credit score free online credit credit repair attorneys in atlanta how to find out how to get credit score without paying experian credit experian credit report freeze phone number credit one bank payment mailing address cash installment loans from indian reservations fast credit fast credit repair in 30 days sample company credit report australia instant view my credit report for free how to find out get how to get your credit score canada where can i get a loan need a personal loan with bad credit fast best way to check credit score free once a year asic national consumer credit protection act capital one sign in credit card payment how does cash advance interest work free unsecured credit repair credit cards loan advance insurance insurance step by step guide steps to repairing your credit dishwasher consumer report canada experian online dispute login credit repair albuquerque nm how to buy skype credit on ipad how to avoid cash advance fees mortgages for bad credit and self employed how can i fix how can i fix my credit score quickly best credit repair company in houston free instant how to improve credit score uk what does my credit score mean 718 advantage credit bureau long term unsecured bad credit loan what information is disputing items on the credit report how to improve my experian credit score how many times a year should i check my credit score without compare the the best credit repair companies clark howard credit report dispute repairing average credit score after bankruptcy credit best cd rates for banks what is credit score range for equifax visa credit card for bad credit history fast instant online cash advance lenders credit repair services in charleston sc online cash advance checkmate payday loans colorado how to remove a paid judgement on credit report vat input credit on repair and maintenance payday loans direct lenders bad credit accepted if your credit score goes down how can you fix it european free company credit reports online bad credit checking accounts banks vantage vantage credit scores explained how to file fix a bad credit report money credit to you telstra illegally obtaining credit reports on customers 100 free background check no credit card experian credit files cash fnb online loans south africa us three credit reporting bureaus how to fix bad credit on your own pay loan companies able to suspend license cibil report online free best credit garage door repair companies in chicago can collection agencies remove entries from credit report the reviews of lexington credit repair goodwill free sample credit repair letters free can i order a credit how to run a credit report on someone else tenant credit history reports how do i check how to find my business credit score in credit with british kia gas refund card discover american express credit report service best payday personal loans without credit check how to fix how to improve my credit rating fast quick mark fix credit repair fast in smyrna georgia how to remove credit freeze equifax self free credit repair information find company credit ratings how to get free credit score gov how do i get my 3 free credit reports credit repair firms craigslist lake havasu city piggyback credit card companies bank of america va loan credit score requirements credit scores credit score range for mortgages what's the best credit report company request free copy of credit report transunion advance cash loan payday quick northern vance high school diy download free credit repair letters professional professional credit repair business software new beginnings credit transmission repair san antonio tx credit repair in memphis tn what is the purpose of the fair credit report act form cancel experian triple advantage credit monitoring how to get how to improve credit score uk order free free credit report credit report request credit repair guide by kyle wither 101 tips to banish your belly how to find experian credit report number repairing get a new credit file sky blue credit auto body repair better business bureau best credit repair san antonio equifax business credit check form allied cash advance payday loan q7 credit secure costa mesa vw credit canada inc ottawa address my credit rating free australia what is what is a limited credit history my credit repair sprint store in humble texas experian instant credit check for tenants credit check universities in canada for business money instant payday loans online canada how to fix my credit uk free credit report law how to repair credit how to improve your credit score after short sale what is the top 10 best credit repair companies current credit score scale 2014 define consumer the consumer credit reporting reform act of 1996 free government credit report free repairing your credit can you buy a house after a short sale professional how to start a credit repair company is it possible to get a loan without a credit check where to get a loan with bad credit and no cosigner installment loans for bad credit direct lenders only how to get my fico score free equifax free free credit report united states government